▪ American music group
also known as  P-Funk  

      massive group of performers that greatly influenced black music in the 1970s. The original members were George Clinton (b. July 22, 1941, Kannapolis, N.C., U.S.), Raymond Davis (b. March 29, 1940, Sumter, S.C.), Calvin Simon (b. May 22, 1942, Beckley, W.Va.), Fuzzy Haskins (byname of Clarence Haskins; b. June 8, 1941, Elkhorn, W.Va.), and Grady Thomas (b. Jan. 5, 1941, Newark, N.J.). Later members included Michael Hampton (b. Nov. 15, 1956, Cleveland, Ohio), Bernie Worrell (b. April 19, 1944, Long Beach, N.J.), Billy Bass Nelson (byname of William Nelson, Jr.; b. Jan. 28, 1951, Plainfield, N.J.), Eddie Hazel (b. April 10, 1950, Brooklyn, N.Y.—d. Dec. 23, 1992), Tiki Fulwood (byname of Ramon Fulwood; b. May 23, 1944, Philadelphia, Pa.—d. Oct. 29, 1979), Bootsy Collins (byname of William Collins; b. Oct. 26, 1951, Cincinnati, Ohio), Fred Wesley (b. July 4, 1943, Columbus, Ga.), Maceo Parker (b. Feb. 14, 1943, Kinston, N.C.), Jerome Brailey (b. Aug. 20, 1950, Richmond, Va.), Garry Shider (b. July 24, 1953, Plainfield), Glen Goins (b. Jan. 2, 1954, Plainfield—d. July 29, 1978, Plainfield), and Gary (“Mudbone”) Cooper (b. Nov. 24, 1953, Washington, D.C.). The group scored 13 Top Ten rhythm-and-blues and pop hits from 1967 to 1983 (including six number one rhythm-and-blues hits) under a variety of names, including the Parliaments, Funkadelic, Bootsy's Rubber Band, and the Brides of Funkenstein, as well as under the name of its founding father, Clinton.

      The band combined the hard rock of Jimi Hendrix (Hendrix, Jimi), the funky rhythms of James Brown (Brown, James), and the showstopping style of Sly and the Family Stone to fashion an outrageous tribal funk experience. P-Funk emphasized the aesthetics of funk as a means of self-fulfillment; to “give up the funk” meant to achieve transcendence.

      Organized and produced by Clinton, the original Parliaments began as a doo-wop quintet based in Plainfield. The group's first charting single, “(I Wanna) Testify,” in 1967 led to their first tour, but legal problems that arose with the demise of their record company resulted in the loss of the group's name. Performing throughout the northeastern United States and recording in Detroit, the group began to emphasize its backing band, Funkadelic. Led by bassist Nelson, guitarist Hazel, drummer Fulwood, and classically trained keyboardist Worrell, Funkadelic incorporated the influence of amplified, psychedelic rock into its distinctive sound.

      By 1970 Clinton was producing albums for both the renamed Parliament and Funkadelic—essentially the same entity recording for different labels. In the process he recruited key new performers: Collins on bass, Wesley on trombone, and Parker on saxophone (all from James Brown's band the JBs), along with drummer Brailey, vocalist Cooper, lead guitarist Hampton, and vocalist-guitarists Shider and Goins. Success came in 1976 with the release of Parliament's album Mothership Connection and the single “Give Up the Funk (Tear the Roof Off the Sucker),” which earned a gold record. Other hit singles followed, including “Flash Light” (1977) by Parliament, “One Nation Under a Groove” (1978) by Funkadelic, and “Atomic Dog” (1982) by Clinton.

      P-Funk reached its peak in the late 1970s, sporting a massive stage act (with more than 40 performers) that showcased Clinton's visionary album concepts, Collins's spectacular bass effects, and Worrell's synthesizer innovations. However, by the early 1980s the large overhead and multifaceted legal identity of the group led to a collapse of the enterprise.

      P-Funk defined the dance music of its time and influenced a range of styles from hard rock to house music. The P-Funk catalog is among the most sampled by rap music producers. Parliament-Funkadelic was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997.

Rickey Vincent

Representative Works

Osmium (1970)
Mothership Connection (1976)
Parliament Live—P-Funk Earth Tour (1977)
Funkentelechy vs. The Placebo Syndrome (1977)

Maggot Brain (1971)
Let's Take It to the Stage (1975)
One Nation Under a Groove (1978)

Bootsy's Rubber Band
Stretchin' Out in Bootsy's Rubber Band (1976)
Ahh . . . The Name Is Bootsy, Baby! (1977)

George Clinton
Computer Games (1982)

Additional Reading
David Mills, et al., George Clinton and P-Funk: An Oral History (1998), is a definitive collection of viewpoints from Parliament-Funkadelic players themselves. Rickey Vincent, Funk: The Music, the People, and the Rhythm of The One (1996), explores P-Funk spirituality, style, and influence on black culture. Greg Tate, Flyboy in the Buttermilk: Essays on Contemporary America (1992), presents interviews and essays that analyze P-Funk in social context. S.H. Fernando, Jr., The New Beats: Exploring the Music, Culture, and Attitudes of Hip-Hop (1994), examines the influence of P-Funk on rap music. Detailed chronologies of P-Funk can be found in Irwin Stambler, Encyclopedia of Pop, Rock & Soul, rev. ed. (1989); Colin Larkin (ed.), The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 2nd ed., vol. 2 and 4 (1995); and Patricia Romanowski, Holly George-Warren, and Jon Pareles (eds.), The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, completely rev. and updated (1995). Brian Ward, Just My Soul Responding (1998), provides historical analysis of rhythm and blues, black consciousness, and race relations.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Parliament-Funkadelic — The bands The Parliaments, Parliament, and Funkadelic cannot be easily separated. For details on the individual bands, see their separate articles. Parliament Funkadelic George Clinton and Parliament Funkadelic performing at the Granada Theater… …   Wikipedia

  • Parliament Funkadelic — American funk music band founded in the 1970s by George Clinton and Bootsy Collins …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Funkadelic — Datos generales Origen Estados Unidos Información artística Género(s) P Funk, funk, soul …   Wikipedia Español

  • Funkadelic — George Clinton …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Funkadelic — war eine afro amerikanische Funkband, die in den 1970er und 1980er Jahren erfolgreich war. Zu ihren Mitgliedern gehörte u. a. der Funk Bassist Bootsy Collins. Ursprünglich waren Funkadelic die Hintergrund Band für The Parliaments, eine Vokal… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Funkadelic (album) — Funkadelic Studio album by Funkadelic Released 1970 Genre …   Wikipedia

  • Funkadelic — Infobox musical artist Name = Funkadelic Img capt = On tour, Liverpool, May 1971. Img size = Background = group or band Origin = U.S. Genre = Funk, soul, psychedelic soul, psychedelic rock Years active = 1970 1981 Label = Westbound Warner Bros.… …   Wikipedia

  • Parliament (band) — Infobox musical artist Name = Parliament Img capt = Img size = Background = group or band Birth name = Alias = Born = Died = Origin = Detroit, MI Instrument = Genre = Funk, soul Occupation = Years active = 1968 1980 Label = Casablanca Invictus… …   Wikipedia

  • Parliament — Die Gruppe Parliament, eine der Ikonen des P Funk, wurde 1968 von George Clinton gegründet. Die Band war neben der Band Funkadelic Clintons zweites großes Projekt und Clinton setzte zum Großteil auf dieselben Musiker – die doppelte Namensführung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Parliament — The Parliaments Surnom Funkadelic Pays d’origine  États Unis Genre musical Doo wop …   Wikipédia en Français

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