McNamara, Robert S.
▪ United States statesmanin full Robert Strange McNamaraborn June 9, 1916, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.U.S. secretary of defense from 1961 to 1968 who revamped Pentagon operations and who played a major role in the nation's military involvement in Vietnam.After graduating from the University of California at Berkeley in 1937, McNamara earned a graduate degree at the Harvard Business School (1939) and later joined the Harvard faculty. Disqualified by poor vision from active duty during World War II, he developed logistical systems for bomber raids and statistical systems for monitoring troops and supplies.After the war, McNamara was one of the “Whiz Kids” hired to revitalize the Ford Motor Company. His plans, including the institution of strict cost-accounting methods and the development of both compact and luxury models, met with success, and McNamara rose rapidly in the corporate ranks. In 1960 he became the first person outside the Ford family to assume presidency of the company.After just one month as Ford's president, however, McNamara resigned to join the Kennedy (Kennedy, John F.) administration as secretary of defense. In his new post he successfully gained control of Pentagon operations and the military bureaucracy, encouraged the modernization of the armed forces, restructured budget procedures, and cut costs by refusing to spend money on what he believed were unnecessary or obsolete weapons systems. McNamara was also at the centre of a drive to alter U.S. military strategy from the “massive retaliation” of the Eisenhower years to a “flexible response,” emphasizing counterinsurgency techniques and second-strike nuclear-missile capability.McNamara initially supported the deepening military involvement of the United States in Vietnam (Vietnam War). On visits to South Vietnam in 1962, 1964, and 1966, the secretary publicly expressed optimism that the National Liberation Front and its North Vietnamese allies would soon abandon their attempt to overthrow the U.S.-backed Saigon regime. He became the government's chief spokesman for the day-to-day operations of the war and acted as President Lyndon B. Johnson (Johnson, Lyndon B.)'s principal deputy in the war's prosecution.As early as 1965, however, McNamara had begun to question the wisdom of U.S. military involvement in Vietnam, and by 1967 he was openly seeking a way to launch peace negotiations. He initiated a full-scale investigation of the American commitment to Vietnam (later published as The Pentagon Papers), came out in opposition to continued bombing of North Vietnam (for which he lost influence in the Johnson administration), and in February 1968 left the Pentagon to become president of the World Bank.In his 13-year tenure as head of that institution, McNamara displayed what was generally regarded as great sensitivity to the needs of Third World nations. He retired from the World Bank in 1981 but remained active in many other organizations. He addressed issues such as world hunger, East-West relations, and other policy matters. His policy papers were published in two volumes, and his book Blundering into Disaster: Surviving the First Century in a Nuclear Age (1986) discusses nuclear war.In 1995 McNamara published a memoir, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam, in which he describes the anticommunist political climate of the era, mistaken assumptions of foreign policy, and misjudgments on the part of the military that combined to create the Vietnam debacle. In the documentary film The Fog of War (2003), McNamara discusses his career in the Pentagon as well as U.S. failures in Vietnam.Additional ReadingDeborah Shapely, Promise and Power: The Life and Times of Robert S. McNamara (1992), is a well-researched biography.
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McNamara,Robert Strange — Mc·Na·mar·a (măkʹnə măr ə), Robert Strange. Born 1916. American public official who served as U.S. secretary of defense (1961 1968) during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. * * * … Universalium
McNamara, Robert S(trange) — born June 9, 1916, San Francisco, Calif., U.S. U.S. secretary of defense (1961–68). He graduated from the University of California at Berkeley (1937), earned a graduate degree at the Harvard Business School (1939), and later joined the Harvard… … Universalium
McNamara, Robert S(trange) — (n. 9 jun. 1916, San Francisco, Cal., EE.UU.). Secretario de defensa de EE.UU. (1961–68). Se tituló en la Universidad de California en Berkeley (1937), obtuvo un título de postgrado en la escuela de negocios de Harvard (1939) y más adelante se… … Enciclopedia Universal
Robert S. McNamara — Robert McNamara 1967 Robert Strange McNamara (* 9. Juni 1916 in San Francisco) ist ein US amerikanischer Geschäftsmann und Politiker. Robert McNamara wurde 1960 der erste Präsident der Ford Motor Company, der nicht aus der Familie Ford stammte.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Robert Strange McNamara — Robert McNamara 1967 Robert Strange McNamara (* 9. Juni 1916 in San Francisco) ist ein US amerikanischer Geschäftsmann und Politiker. Robert McNamara wurde 1960 der erste Präsident der Ford Motor Company, der nicht aus der Familie Ford stammte.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Robert McNamara — «McNamara» redirige aquí. Para el artista español, véase Fabio McNamara. Robert McNamara … Wikipedia Español
Robert MacNamara — Robert McNamara Pour les articles homonymes, voir McNamara. Robert McNamara en 1964. Robert Strange McNamara, né le 9 juin 191 … Wikipédia en Français
Robert Strange McNamara — Robert McNamara Pour les articles homonymes, voir McNamara. Robert McNamara en 1964. Robert Strange McNamara, né le 9 juin 191 … Wikipédia en Français
Robert Abercrombie Lovett — Robert A. Lovett (1951) Robert Abercrombie Lovett (* 14. September 1895 in Huntsville, Texas; † 7. Mai 1986 in Locust Valley, New York) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Er war vom 1. Juli 1947 bis zum 20. Januar 1949 stellvertretender … Deutsch Wikipedia
Robert Lovett — Robert A. Lovett (1951) Robert Abercrombie Lovett (* 14. September 1895 in Huntsville, Texas; † 7. Mai 1986 in Locust Valley, New York) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Er war vom 1. Juli 1947 bis zum 20. Januar 1949 stellvertretender … Deutsch Wikipedia