Martin, Pierre-Émile

▪ French engineer
born Aug. 18, 1824, Bourges, Fr.
died May 23, 1915, Fourchambault
 French engineer who invented the Siemens–Martin (open-hearth) process, which produced most of the world's steel until the development of the basic oxygen process.

      While the chemistry of steelmaking was already familiar in 1856, the only practical method, the Bessemer process, had many serious drawbacks. In that year the English engineer Sir William Siemens (Siemens, Sir William) invented the open-hearth furnace, which could produce and sustain much higher temperatures than any other furnace. Martin obtained a license to build such furnaces and developed a method of producing steel by using scrap steel and pig iron. His steel products were awarded a Gold Medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. Although Siemens developed his own method of steel production with his open-hearth furnace, the Siemens-Martin process eventually became the most widespread.

      Martin's patents on his process were challenged, and the ensuing litigation reduced him to virtual poverty. Others were making large profits using his process, however, and finally, when Martin was 83 years old, the Comité des Forges de France (“Ironworkers Guild of France”) instituted a fund for him that was supported by all of the principal steelmaking countries. Barely one week before Martin's death, the Iron and Steel Institute, London, honoured him with its Bessemer Gold Medal.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Pierre-Émile Martin — Nom de naissance Pierre Emile Blaise MARTIN Naissance 17 août 1824 Bourges, France …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pierre-Emile Martin — Pierre Émile Martin Pour les articles homonymes, voir Martin. Pierre Émile Martin (né en 1824 à Bourges et décédé en 1915 à Fourchambault) est un ingénieur des mines de Paris et industriel français. On lui doit l application du principe de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pierre Émile Martin — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Martin. Pierre Émile Martin (né en 1824 à Bourges et décédé en 1915 à Fourchambault) est un ingénieur des mines de Paris et industriel français. On lui doit l application du principe de la récupération des gaz… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pierre-Émile Martin — Pierre Émile Martin, (* 18. August 1824 in Bourges; † 23. Mai 1915 in Fourchambault) war ein französischer Hüttentechniker. François Marie Emile Martin (1794 1871) und sein Sohn Pierre führten in Sireuil bei Angoulême (Südfrankreich) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Martin-Pierre Tremblay — Nom de naissance Martin Pierre Tremblay Naissance 1972 Nationalité Canadienne Profession écrivain Martin Pierre Tremblay …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pierre-Émile Martin — Infobox Engineer image size = 150px caption = Pierre Émile Martin name = Pierre Émile Martin nationality = France birth date = 18 August, 1824 birth place = Bourges death date = 23 May, 1915 death place = Fourchambault education = spouse =… …   Wikipedia

  • Martín — Martin ist ein männlicher Vorname und Familienname. Die weibliche Form des Namens lautet Martina. Der Nachname Martin ist in vielen Ländern verbreitet. In Frankreich zum Beispiel ist er der häufigste Familienname und auch im englischsprachigen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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