Loménie de Brienne, Étienne-Charles de

▪ French cardinal and statesman
born Oct. 9, 1727, Paris
died Feb. 19, 1794, Sens, Fr.

      French ecclesiastic and minister of finance on the eve of the French Revolution. His unusual intelligence and aristocratic connections secured his rapid advancement in the church: he became bishop of Condom in 1760 and archbishop of Toulouse in 1763. He was placed in control of finance in 1787 through the influence of Marie-Antoinette and because of his role in the first assembly of notables (1787). But he proved unable to cope with the worsening financial crisis. The Parlement of Paris opposed his plans for imposition of a land tax on the privileged orders. In June 1788 his demand for an enlarged voluntary tax from the assembly of the clergy was only partially granted, and he was compelled in July to submit to demands for the summons of the States General. In August, having virtually declared national bankruptcy, he resigned in favour of Jacques Necker and was then made archbishop of Sens and, later in 1788, cardinal. Loménie de Brienne was one of the few prelates who took the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of 1790. His former position as a court favourite, however, made him a suspect during the Reign of Terror, and he died in prison at Sens.

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Universalium. 2010.

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