labour, hours of

      the proportion of a person's time spent at work. Hours of labour have declined significantly since the middle of the 19th century, with workers in advanced industrial countries spending far fewer hours per year in a given place of work than they did formerly.

      The movement for shorter hours began almost with the formation of unions but met with great employer resistance. In Britain (United Kingdom) it was not until 1847 that an effective limit of 10 hours per day was placed upon the factory employment of women and children. In the United States, state employment laws were enacted in the 1840s and '50s, but it was not until the 1870s that any such law contained enforcement provisions. In Australia, where the general shortage of labour made unions successful, the eight-hour day was established in the skilled trades by the 1850s.

      A shorter working day was a major demand of trade unions in most countries during the latter part of the 19th century and throughout the first half of the 20th. As technical progress made an hour of labour more productive, employers had less reason to resist shorter working hours. During World War I, the eight-hour day and the six-day 48-hour week became standard in American factories. Most European countries also made substantial gains toward achieving the 48-hour week during the 1920s. Many of them signed the international convention, sponsored by the newly formed International Labour Organisation (International Labour Organization), that declared the eight-hour day or 48-hour week to be a standard.

      A principal argument for shorter hours that gained prominence during the 1930s was the notion that scarce opportunities for gainful employment ought to be shared among the largest possible number of workers. A standard 40-hour week resulted in the United States when the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 required employers to pay time and a half to those working more than the maximum of 40 hours per week. The 40-hour week was also established in France by the popular front government in 1936.

      Australia had achieved a 40-hour week by 1948, and Canada did so in the early 1960s. Most European countries had implemented a standard 40-hour workweek by the 1970s. German workers staged a six-week national strike in 1978 demanding a 35-hour week. While the strike failed, a 37.5-hour week became standard. In most countries, some provision is made for permitting work in excess of the prescribed number of hours. Such overtime work must usually be compensated at premium hourly rates.

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Universalium. 2010.

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