(from Portuguese cristão, “Christian”), in Japanese history, a Japanese Christian or Japanese Christianity, specifically relating to Roman Catholic missionaries and converts in 16th- and 17th-century Japan. Modern Japanese Christianity is known as Kirisuto-kyō.

      Christian missionaries led by Francis Xavier (Xavier, Saint Francis) entered Japan in 1549, only six years after the first Portuguese traders, and over the next century converted hundreds of thousands of Japanese—perhaps half a million—to Christianity. The influence of the Jesuits, and later, Franciscans, was enormous, and the growth of the new sect raised political fears that helped fuel Japan's decision to exclude all foreign traders but the Dutch, the Chinese, and the Koreans.

       Oda Nobunaga (1534–82) had taken his first step toward uniting Japan as the first missionaries landed, and as his power increased he encouraged the growing Kirishitan movement as a means of subverting the great political strength of Buddhism. Oppressed peasants welcomed the gospel of salvation, but merchants and trade-conscious daimyos saw Christianity as an important link with valuable European trade. Oda's successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537–98), was much cooler toward the alien religion. The Japanese were becoming aware of competition between the Jesuits and the Franciscans and between Spanish and Portuguese trading interests. Toyotomi questioned the reliability of subjects with some allegiance to the foreign power at the Vatican. In 1587 he ordered all foreign missionaries (mission) to leave Japan but did not enforce the edict harshly until a decade later, when nine missionaries and 17 native Kirishitan were martyred.

      After Toyotomi's death and the brief regency of his adopted child, the pressures relaxed. However, Tokugawa Ieyasu, who founded the great Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1867), gradually came to see the foreign missionaries as a threat to political stability. By 1614, through his son and successor, Tokugawa Hidetada, he banned Kirishitan and ordered the missionaries expelled. Severe persecution continued for a generation under his son and grandson. Kirishitan were required to renounce their faith on pain of exile or torture. Every family was required to belong to a Buddhist temple, and periodic reports on them were expected from the temple priests.

      The rebellion in 1637–38 of a community of Kirishitan in the Shimabara Peninsula (see Shimabara Rebellion) was put down only with difficulty, and its eventual failure intensified efforts to root out the faith. By 1650 all known Kirishitan had been exiled or executed. Undetected survivors were driven underground into a secret movement that came to be known as Kakure Kirishitan (“Hidden Christians”), existing mainly in western Kyushu island around Nagasaki and Shimabara. To avoid detection they were obliged to practice deceptions such as using images of the Virgin Mary disguised as the popular and merciful Bōsatsu (bodhisattva) Kannon (Avalokiteśvara), whose gender is ambiguous and whom carvers often render as female.

      The populace at large remained unaware that the Kakure Kirishitan managed to survive for two centuries, and when the prohibition against Roman Catholics began to ease again in the mid-19th century, arriving European priests were told there were no Japanese Christians left. A Roman Catholic church set up in Nagasaki in 1865 was dedicated to the 26 martyrs of 1597, and within the year 20,000 Kakure Kirishitan dropped their disguise and openly professed their Christian faith. They faced some repression during the waning years of the Tokugawa shogunate, but early in the reforms of the emperor Meiji (reigned 1867–1912) the Kirishitan won the right to declare their faith and worship publicly.

      About 14,000 of the long-hidden Christians established relations with the European priests and found their way into the Roman Catholic church, but a large remainder would not abandon various Buddhist and other non-Christian elements that had crept into Kakure Kirishitan tradition during two centuries of isolation. These, hidden no longer, came to be known as Hanare Kirishitan, or Separate Christians.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kirishitan — 吉利支丹, 切支丹, キリシタン Japanese Christians ( Kirishitan ) in Portuguese costume, 16 17th century. Founder Jesus Christ …   Wikipedia

  • Kirishitan — (en katakana キリシタン, en kanji por escritura fonética 吉利支丹 o 切支丹) significa cristiano(s) en japonés y hoy es usado como un término historiográfico para los cristianos en Japón en los siglos XVI y XVII. Este artículo trata sobre el cristianismo en… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Kirishitan — Das Christentum spielt in Japan nur eine untergeordnete Rolle, da die Vorstellung eines einzigen allmächtigen Gottes mit den traditionellen religiösen Vorstellungen schwer in Einklang zu bringen ist. Heute sind nur etwa 1 % aller Japaner Christen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kirishitan — Statue en ivoire du Christ, XVIIe s., Japon. Kirishitan (キリシタン, Kirishitan …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kakure Kirishitan — Das Christentum spielt in Japan nur eine untergeordnete Rolle, da die Vorstellung eines einzigen allmächtigen Gottes mit den traditionellen religiösen Vorstellungen schwer in Einklang zu bringen ist. Heute sind nur etwa 1 % aller Japaner Christen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kakure Kirishitan — is a modern term for a member of the Japanese Roman Catholic Church that went underground after the Shimabara Rebellion in the 1630s. HistoryKakure Kirishitans are called the hidden Christians because they continued to practice Christianity in… …   Wikipedia

  • Hanare Kirishitan — nihongo|Hanare Kirishitan|離れキリシタン| are Japanese Crypto Christians, descendants of those converted by Portuguese missionaries, who chose not to rejoin the Roman Catholic Church in the nineteenth century during the Meiji Restoration. The Hanare… …   Wikipedia

  • Kakure Kirishitan — ▪ Japanese religious sect       (Japanese: “Hidden Christians”), descendants of the first Japanese converts to Christianity who, driven underground by 1650, managed to maintain their faith in secret for more than two centuries. See Kirishitan. *… …   Universalium

  • Kakure kirishitan —     Hidden Christians who survived the early Tokugawa persecutions, compulsory Buddhist registration and forced renunciation of Christianity during the two century sakoku ( closed country ) period to re emerge as distinctive religious communities …   A Popular Dictionary of Shinto

  • KAKURE KIRISHITAN (HIDDEN CHRISTIANS) —    Following the Tokugawa proscription of Christianity in the 17th century, many practicing Japanese Christians took their beliefs underground, and for two centuries secretly practiced a modified form of Catholicism. Their existence became known… …   Japanese literature and theater

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.