Khwārizmī, al

▪ Muslim mathematicianin full Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmīborn c. 780, Baghdad, Iraqdied c. 850Muslim mathematician and astronomer whose major works introduced HinduArabic numerals and the concepts of algebra into European mathematics. Latinized versions of his name and of his most famous book title live on in the terms algorithm and algebra.AlKhwārizmī lived in Baghdad, where he worked at the “House of Wisdom” (Dār alḤikma) under the Caliphate of alMaʾmūn. (The House of Wisdom acquired and translated scientific and philosophic treatises, particularly Greek, as well as publishing original research.) AlKwārizmī's work on elementary algebra, alKitāb almukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb aljabr waʾlmuqābala (“The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing”), was translated into Latin in the 12th century, from which the title and term Algebra derives. Algebra is a compilation of rules, together with demonstrations, for finding solutions of linear and quadratic equations based on intuitive geometric arguments, rather than the abstract notation now associated with the subject. Its systematic, demonstrative approach distinguishes it from earlier treatments of the subject. It also contains sections on calculating areas and volumes of geometric figures and on the use of algebra to solve inheritance problems according to proportions prescribed by Islamic law. Elements within the work can be traced from Babylonian mathematics of the early 2nd millennium BC through Hellenistic, Hebrew, and Hindu treatises.In the 12th century a second work by alKhwārizmī introduced HinduArabic numerals (see numerals and numeral systems) and their arithmetic to the West. It is preserved only in a Latin translation, Algoritmi de numero Indorum (“AlKhwārizmī Concerning the Hindu Art of Reckoning”). From the name of the author, rendered in Latin as algoritmi, originated the term algorithm.A third major book was his Kitāb ṣūrat alarḍ (“The Image of the Earth”; translated as Geography), which presented the coordinates of localities in the known world based, ultimately, on those in the Geography of Ptolemy (fl. AD 127–145) but with improved values for the length of the Mediterranean Sea and the location of cities in Asia and Africa. He also assisted in the construction of a world map for alMaʾmūn and participated in a project to determine the circumference of the Earth, which had long been known to be spherical, by measuring the length of a degree of a meridian through the plain of Sinjār in Iraq.Finally, alKhwārizmī also compiled a set of astronomical tables (Zīj), based on a variety of Hindu and Greek sources. This work included a table of sines, evidently for a circle of radius 150 units. Like his treatises on algebra and HinduArabic numerals, this astronomical work (or an Andalusian revision thereof) was translated into Latin.
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Universalium. 2010.
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Khwarizmi — (Muhammad ibn Mûsâ al ) (mort v. 850) mathématicien et astronome musulman qui vécut à Samarkand ou dans une ville proche. Il résolut les équations du 2e degré. Une déformation de son nom a donné le mot algorithme … Encyclopédie Universelle
Khwārizmī, al — biographical name circa 780 circa 850 Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al Khwārizmī Islamic (Persian born) mathematician & astronomer … New Collegiate Dictionary
Khwarizmi,al — Khwa·riz·mi (kwärʹĭz mē, KHwärʹ ), al . Full name Muhammad ibn Musa al Khwarizmi. 780? 850?. Arab mathematician and astronomer whose works introduced Arabic numerals and algebraic concepts to Western mathematics. The word algorithm is derived… … Universalium
Khwarizmi — /khwahr iz mee /, n. al /al/ (Muhammed ibn Musa al Khwarizmi), A.D. c780 c850, Arab mathematician and astronomer. * * * … Universalium
Khwarizmi — /khwahr iz mee /, n. al /al/ (Muhammed ibn Musa al Khwarizmi), A.D. c780 c850, Arab mathematician and astronomer … Useful english dictionary
Khwarizmi International Award — The Khwarizmi International Award is given annually by the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST) to individuals who have made outstanding achievements in research, innovation and invention, in fields related to science… … Wikipedia
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī — al Khwārizmī redirects here. For other uses, see al Khwārizmī (disambiguation). Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al Khwārizmī … Wikipedia
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AlKhwarizmi (cratère) — Al Khwarizmi Vue d Al Khwarizmi. Localisation Astre Lune Coordonnées … Wikipédia en Français
Abu Ja'far Muhammad Ibn Musa AlKhwarizmi — Statue Al Chwarizmis, Technische Universität Teheran Muhammad ibn Musa, Abu Dscha far al Chwarizmi (Var. Chwarazmi) محمد بن موسى ابو جعفر الخوارزمي / Muḥammad b. Mūsā, Abū Ǧaʿfar al Ḫawārazmī, Var. al Ḫwārizmi, ISO 233: ʾˈalẖwʾrzmy (* um 780; † … Deutsch Wikipedia