Kennan, George F.
▪ American diplomat and historianin full George Frost Kennanborn February 16, 1904, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.died March 17, 2005, Princeton, New JerseyAmerican diplomat and historian best known for his successful advocacy of a “containment policy (containment)” to oppose Soviet expansionism following World War II.Upon graduation from Princeton in 1925, Kennan entered the foreign service. He was sent overseas immediately and spent several years in Geneva; Berlin; Tallinn, Estonia; Riga, Latvia; and other “listening posts” around the Soviet Union, with which the United States had no diplomatic relations at the time. Anticipating the establishment of such relations, the State Department sent Kennan to the University of Berlin in 1929 to immerse himself in the study of Russian thought, language, and culture. He completed his studies in 1931 and in 1933 accompanied U.S. ambassador William C. Bullitt (Bullitt, William C) to Moscow following U.S. recognition of the Soviet government. Two years later he was assigned to Vienna, and he finished the decade with posts in Prague and Berlin.Interned briefly by the Nazis at the outbreak of World War II, Kennan was released in 1942 and subsequently filled diplomatic posts in Lisbon and Moscow during the war. It was from Moscow in February 1946 that Kennan sent a cablegram, known as the “Long Telegram,” that enunciated the containment policy. The telegram was widely read in Washington, D.C., and brought Kennan much recognition. Later that year he returned to the United States, and in 1947 he was named director of the State Department's policy-planning staff.Kennan's views on containment were elucidated in a famous and highly influential article, signed “X,” that appeared in Foreign Affairs magazine for July 1947, analyzing in detail the structure and psychology of Soviet diplomacy. In the article Kennan, who drew heavily from his Long Telegram, questioned the wisdom of the United States' attempts to conciliate and appease the Soviet Union. He suggested that the Russians, while still fundamentally opposed to coexistence with the West and bent on worldwide extension of the Soviet system, were acutely sensitive to the logic of military force and would temporize or retreat in the face of skillful and determined Western opposition to their expansion. Kennan then advocated U.S. counterpressure wherever the Soviets threatened to expand and predicted that such counterpressure would lead either to Soviet willingness to cooperate with the United States or perhaps eventually to an internal collapse of the Soviet government. This view subsequently became the core of U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union.Kennan accepted appointment as counselor to the State Department in 1949, but he resigned the following year to join the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. He returned to Moscow in 1952 as U.S. ambassador but came back to the United States the following year after the Russians declared him persona non grata for remarks he made about Soviet treatment of Western diplomats. In 1956 he became permanent professor of historical studies at the institute in Princeton, a tenure broken only by a stint as U.S. ambassador to Yugoslavia (1961–63). In the late 1950s Kennan revised his containment views, advocating instead a program of U.S. “disengagement” from areas of conflict with the Soviet Union. He later emphatically denied that containment was relevant to other situations in other parts of the world—e.g., Vietnam.A prolific and acclaimed author, Kennan won simultaneous Pulitzer Prizes and National Book Awards for Russia Leaves the War (1956) and Memoirs, 1925–1950 (1967). Other autobiographies include Memoirs, 1950–1963 (1972), Sketches from a Life (1989), and At a Century's Ending: Reflections, 1982–1995 (1996). Kennan, who received numerous honours, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1989.
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Kennan, George Frost — (1904 ) Diplomat and foreign policy specialist George F. Kennan was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. After graduating from Princeton University in 1925, he joined the Foreign Service and filled a number of State Department posts, most… … Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era
Kennan, George Frost — ▪ 2006 American diplomat (b. Feb. 16, 1904, Milwaukee, Wis. d. March 17, 2005, Princeton, N.J.), defined U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War as principal architect of the “containment policy” against the expansionism of the Soviet Union … Universalium
Kennan, George F(rost) — born Feb. 16, 1904, Milwaukee, Wis., U.S. U.S. diplomat and historian. After graduating from Princeton University in 1925, he entered the U.S. foreign service, studied Russian language and culture at the University of Berlin (1929–31), and was… … Universalium
Kennan,George Frost — Ken·nan (kĕnʹən), George Frost. Born 1904. American diplomat and historian who recommended the policy of containment toward Soviet aggression. He served as U.S. ambassador to the USSR (1952) and Yugoslavia (1961 1963). His written works include… … Universalium
Kennan, George F(rost) — (16 feb. 1904, Milwaukee, Wis., EE.UU.–17 mar. 2005 Princeton, N.J.). Diplomático e historiador estadounidense. Egresó de la Universidad de Princeton en 1925 y entró al servicio exterior estadounidense, estudió el idioma y la cultura de Rusia en… … Enciclopedia Universal
George Frost Kennan — George F. Kennan, 1940er George Frost Kennan (* 16. Februar 1904 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; † 17. März 2005 in Princeton, New Jersey) war Historiker und einer der bedeutendsten Diplomaten der USA. Sein Name ist … Deutsch Wikipedia
George Kennan — George F. Kennan George F. Kennan en 1947 George Frost Kennan, né à Milwaukee (Wisconsin) le 16 février 1904 et mort à Princeton (New Jersey) le 17 mars 2005, est un … Wikipédia en Français
George F. Kennan — George Frost Kennan (16 de febrero de 1904 – 17 de marzo de 2005) fue un diplomático y consejero gubernamental norteamericano, autor de la doctrina de la contención y figura clave de la Guerra Fría. Escribió varias obras de importancia acerca de… … Wikipedia Español
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