Jomini, Henri, baron de

▪ French general and historian
in full  Antoine-Henri, baron de Jomini 
born March 6, 1779, Payerne, Switzerland
died March 24, 1869, Passy, France
 French general, military critic, and historian whose systematic attempt to define the principles of warfare made him one of the founders of modern military thought.

      Jomini began his military career by offering his services as a volunteer staff member in the French army in 1798. Returning to business in 1800 after the peace of Amiens, he wrote his Traité de grande tactique, later titled Traité des grandes opérations militaires (5 vol., 1805; Treatise on Grand Military Operations, 1865). Rejoining the army in 1804 as a volunteer, he was appointed staff colonel in 1805 by Napoleon, who had read his book. Jomini served under Marshal Michel Ney (Ney, Michel, Duc D'elchingen, Prince De La Moskowa) at the battles of Ulm (Ulm, Battle of) (1805), Jena (Jena, Battle of) (1806), and Eylau (Eylau, Battle of) (1806) and accompanied him to Spain in 1808. In 1810 Jomini began negotiating a contract of service with Russia, at that time France's ally. His attempted resignation from the French army induced Napoleon to make him general of brigade. In 1813 he became chief of staff to Ney, who commanded the most important corps in the army. Nevertheless, Ney's recommendation for Jomini's promotion to general of division was rejected, and a superior officer who was prejudiced against Jomini put him under arrest for the tardy submission of a military report. Feeling himself unjustly treated, he left the French army in August 1813 and fought for Russia, then France's enemy, serving as lieutenant general and aide-de-camp to Alexander I.

      In 1826 Jomini became aide-de-camp to Nicholas I with the rank of general in chief. He fought against the Turks in 1828 and in 1830 organized the Russian military academy. Although retired, in 1837 he was appointed military tutor to the tsar's son Alexander, for whom he wrote his greatest work, Précis de l'art de la guerre (1838; Summary of the Art of War, 1868). In 1854 he served as adviser to Tsar Nicholas on tactics during the Crimean War and in 1859 advised Emperor Napoleon III on the Italian expedition.

      As a critic of military policy, Jomini succeeded for the first time in fixing divisions between strategy, tactics, and logistics. Primarily interested in strategy, he found the central problem in successful planning to be the choice of correct lines of operation by which a general could dominate the zone of operations in which he is engaged. His other works include Principes de la stratégie (3 vol., 1818; “Principles of Strategy”); Histoire critique et militaire des campagnes de la Révolution, de 1792 à 1801 (5 vol.; “Critical and Military History of the Campaigns of the Revolution from 1792 to 1801”); and Vie politique et militaire de Napoléon (4 vol., 1827; Life of Napoleon, 1864).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jomini, (Antoine-) Henri, baron de — born March 6, 1779, Payerne, Switz. died March 24, 1869, Passey, France Swiss French general and military theorist. After a volunteer stint with the French army (1798–1800), he wrote his Treatise on Grand Military Operations, 5 vol. (1805). He… …   Universalium

  • Jomini, (Antoine-) Henri, barón de — (6 mar–1779, Payerne, Suiza–24 mar. 1869, Passey, Francia). General y teórico militar suizo francés. Después de un período como voluntario en el ejército francés (1798–1800), escribió su Tratado sobre grandes operaciones militares, en 5 vol.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • JOMINI (A. H.) — JOMINI ANTOINE HENRI baron (1779 1869) Certains critiques ou historiens, dont Sainte Beuve qui lui consacra une étude approfondie en 1869, ont considéré Antoine Henri Jomini comme l’un des plus grands stratèges d’une époque qui fut pourtant celle …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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  • Jomini —   [ʒɔmi ni], Antoine Henri Baron de (seit 1807), General und Militärschriftsteller schweizerischer Herkunft, * Payerne 6. 3. 1779, ✝ Paris 24. 3. 1869; in französischen Diensten zum General aufgestiegen, wechselte Jomini 1813 zur russischen Armee …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Jomini — Jominī (spr. scho ), Henri, Baron, franz. General und Militärschriftsteller, geb. 6. März 1779 zu Peterlingen (Waadtland), 1804 9 Generalstabschef Neys, 1811 Brigadegeneral, trat 1813 in russ. Dienste, gest. 24. März 1869 zu Passy; schrieb:… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

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  • baron — /bar euhn/, n. 1. a member of the lowest grade of nobility. 2. (in Britain) a. a feudal vassal holding his lands under a direct grant from the king. b. a direct descendant of such a vassal or his equal in the nobility. c. a member of the House of …   Universalium

  • Baron — /bann rddawonn /, n. Michel /mee shel /, (Michel Boyron), 1653 1729, French actor. * * * I Title of nobility, ranking in modern times immediately below a viscount or a count (in countries without viscounts). The wife of a baron is a baroness.… …   Universalium

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