state of Malaysia, southernmost state of Peninsular (West) Malaysia. Its 250-mile (400-km) coastline along the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea also winds around the Republic of Singapore's northern border and is dotted with small islands. Johor is generally flat and jungle covered, with large swamps, but rises in the east-central region to peaks of over 3,000 feet (900 metres).

      Founded by Mahmud (Mahmud Shah), the fugitive sultan of Malacca, and his son Alaʾudʾdin (Ala'ud'din) after the Malaccan kingdom fell to the Portuguese (1511), the area declined in the 18th century when the seat of power shifted to the Riau (Riouw) islands, south of Singapore. The governors of the Johore sultanate were recognized as independent by the British in the cession of Singapore (1819). After 1830, Chinese pepper and gambier (catechu) planters settled in the plains, and a few small trading centres were established along the rivers.

      The region's economy developed after 1919, when the railway was extended southward from Malaya's tin and rubber belt to Singapore, bringing to an end Johore's historical isolation (by swamps) from the rest of the peninsula. Following World War I, large-scale rubber planting was introduced, and tin and iron deposits were discovered. Bauxite is worked at Teluk Ramunia. Johor is a major producer of oil palms, and coconut (copra) and pineapple estates flourish in the swampy plains, particularly in the peat areas to the west. Canning factories adjoin the estates. Johor Tenggara is the site of a large agricultural and resettlement project, which is part of a long-term (1970–90) development plan.

      Because of Johor's shallow harbours, its trade depends on Singapore's port facilities. Commodity movements are now mainly by roads, all converging on the state's main city, Johor Baharu (Johor Bahru), which is linked by causeway to Singapore. The latter nation depends on Johor's Teberau River for its water supply. Johor has become essentially a part of Singapore's hinterland; its economic relations with the Pahang region to the north are negligible. Aside from Johor Baharu, other important towns are Muar, Mersing, Segamat, and Batu Pahat. Area 7,331 square miles (18,987 square km). Pop. (2000) 2,740,625.

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Universalium. 2010.

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