Jiangmen

China
Wade-Giles romanization  Chiang-men , also called  Kongmoon 

      city in central Guangdong sheng (province), China. The city is situated on the west bank of the main channel of the Xi River (Xi River system), at the southwest corner of the Pearl (Zhu) River Delta (Pearl River Delta), some 45 miles (70 km) from Guangzhou (Canton) (Canton). It has excellent waterway communications and is the chief collecting centre and agricultural market for the coastal region west of Guangzhou.

      By the 13th and 14th centuries, during the late Yuan (Yuan dynasty) (1206–1368) and early Ming (Ming dynasty) (1368–1644) dynasties, Jiangmen was a flourishing commercial centre, with regular market fairs. Jiangmen was opened as a treaty port to foreign trade in 1904, but its development was stunted by the rapid growth of Guangzhou and Hong Kong, as a result of which it suffered severely during the economic depression of the mid-1930s. In 1909–13 a railway—the first Chinese line entirely financed and constructed by the Chinese—was built from Jiangmen to Doushan, about 50 miles (80 km) to the southwest, but it was destroyed during the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45). Jiangmen is also the focus of a highway network running into the western coastal region of Guangdong. Although Jiangmen has remained predominantly a commercial centre, since the mid-1950s it has experienced some development of industry. A large sugar and chemical plant, initially built to make sugar and pulp, has been expanded to convert the wastes into chemicals, medicines, bricks, cement, yeast, alcohol, and a variety of other products. Since the early 1980s, Jiangmen has gained ample capital from Hong Kong investors. The city has experienced rapid growth, developing into a booming industrial town along the Pearl River Delta. Jiangmen harbour is the second largest inland transfer port in Guangdong. Luxury passenger ferries sail daily between the city and Hong Kong and Macau. Pop. (2002 est.) 362,357.

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Universalium. 2010.

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