Jackson, Shoeless Joe

▪ American baseball player
byname of  Joseph Jefferson Jackson 
born July 16, 1888, Greenville, South Carolina, U.S.
died December 6, 1951, Greenville
 American professional baseball player, by many accounts one of the greatest, who was ultimately banned from the game because of his involvement in the 1919 Black Sox Scandal.

      Born into extreme poverty, Jackson began work in a cotton mill when he was barely six and never went to school. He survived a sickly childhood caused by the lint-filled air in the mill, then grew tall and gangly, with exceptionally long, strong arms. At age 13 he was an extraordinary ballplayer, the youngest ever to play on a mill team. He acquired his nickname when nursing blistered feet from a new pair of spikes (baseball shoes). Playing without them, he hit a base-clearing triple that provoked an opposing fan to cry out, “You shoeless bastard, you!” Even his bat became part of his growing legend—Black Betsy, a locally hewn piece of hickory 36 inches (91 cm) long, weighing 48 ounces (1.4 kg), 12 ounces (340 grams) heavier than modern bats, and stained by countless splatters of tobacco juice.

      In 1908 Connie Mack (Mack, Connie), owner of the Philadelphia Athletics (A's), bought Jackson's contract with the Greenville Spinners for $325, but the 19-year-old Shoeless Joe, homesick for his 15-year-old wife, Katie, and embarrassed by his hayseed illiteracy, got off the train at Richmond, Virginia, to catch the first train back to Greenville.

      The following season Mack sent Jackson to Savannah, Georgia, where he hit a league-leading .358. When recalled to the A's in Philadelphia, he was humiliated by the relentless hazing of veteran teammates. Mack offered to hire a tutor to teach him to read and write, but Shoeless Joe wanted none of it. In 1910 he was traded to the Cleveland Naps (later the Indians), where he hit an astonishing .407 in his first full season as a big league player. He liked the city, developing a taste for fine food and nice clothes. In an amusing irony, he loved expensive shoes. Fans liked his pleasant, easygoing personality and his friendliness to children. They learned of his superstitious collection of hairpins in his back pocket; of his practice of strengthening his arms, one at a time, by extending Black Betsy out as far as he could and holding it there; and of his exercising his eye muscles by staring at a lit candle with one eye until his vision began to blur, then shifting to the other eye. Meanwhile, his legend grew with his prowess. Star pitcher Walter Johnson (Johnson, Walter) called him “the greatest natural ballplayer I've ever seen.” Ty Cobb (Cobb, Ty), American League batting champion, acknowledged Jackson's superior abilities. Babe Ruth (Ruth, Babe) copied his feet-together batting stance and his power stride into the pitch.

      In 1915 Charles Comiskey (Comiskey, Charles), owner of the Chicago White Sox, bought Jackson for $65,000; he thus became the star of the pennant-winning club. When the United States entered World War I, Jackson was not eligible for the draft, because he was the sole support of his wife and his mother. When he went to work in the shipyards for his war effort, he was labeled a coward and a slacker.

      The United States was different after the war, tainted by a growing cynicism. In baseball, gamblers and fixers openly operated in big league cities with impunity, while club owners swept all rumours of corrupted games under the rug, lest the public lose faith in the national pastime.

      The White Sox, though runaway pennant winners in 1919, were a team of disgruntled underpaid players who were embittered by Comiskey's penuriousness, his failure to pay promised bonuses, and his high-handed refusal to discuss their grievances. It was also a team riddled with hostile cliques and dissension. The outcome was that eight of its ballplayers conspired with gamblers—including former boxer Abe Attell (Attell, Abe)—to throw the World Series to the Cincinnati Reds.

      The Black Sox Scandal, as the fix came to be called, was a fiasco for the players. The gamblers reneged on promised payments, leaving the disorganized and demoralized eight caught in a morass of lies and betrayals. Jackson, who was promised $20,000 for throwing the series (more than three times his $6,000 annual salary), in the end received only $5,000. The degree of his complicity in the scandal, however, has always been puzzling. Although he never returned the bribe, he went on to hit an outstanding .375 for the series while playing errorless ball in the field.

      Jackson tried to meet with Comiskey after the series to tell him about the fix, but Comiskey refused to see him. Back home, Jackson had Katie write explanatory letters but received no reply. Typically, all reports concerning the fix were buried until a year later when the bubble finally burst. At the convening of the grand jury, Jackson confessed, attempting to make sense of what had made no sense to him. It was there, outside the grand jury room, that a young boy is claimed to have delivered the plaintive words that became part of American language: “Say it ain't so, Joe.”

      The eight ballplayers stood trial and were acquitted, but Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis (Landis, Kenesaw Mountain), newly appointed commissioner of baseball, banned them from ever playing professional baseball again.

      Throughout the 1920s and '30s, Jackson played “outlaw” ball around the country under an assumed name, and all efforts at reinstatement were denied him. Retiring to Greenville with Katie, he owned a dry-cleaning shop, a pool parlour, and then a liquor store. Ty Cobb claimed that he drove through Greenville as an old man and stopped at Jackson's liquor store to buy a quart of bourbon, but Jackson failed to greet him. Cobb asked him, “What's the matter, Joe? Don't you remember me?” Jackson replied, “Sure I do, Ty; I just didn't think you wanted me to.”

      Jackson died of a heart attack shortly before he was to appear on Ed Sullivan's variety show, The Toast of the Town, as part of another attempt at his reinstatement. In subsequent decades his name continued to resonate fondly among the fans. Jackson's bat, Black Betsy, was exhibited for a time at Cooperstown, New York, in the Baseball Hall of Fame. Despite his lifetime batting average of .356 and the numerous fans who have called for his induction, there is, as yet, no plaque commemorating his admission to the hall.

Eliot Asinov

Additional Reading
By the end of the 20th century, Jackson had become more than a tainted baseball player; his fall from grace had made him a symbol of the hope for redemption, a theme employed by W.P. Kinsella in his novel Shoeless Joe (1982), on which the film Field of Dreams (1989) was based.In nonfiction a careful analysis of the Black Sox Scandal may be found in Eliot Asinof, Eight Men Out: The Black Sox and the 1919 World Series (1963, rev. eds. 1977 and 1987), on which director John Sayles based the film Eight Men Out (1988).

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Universalium. 2010.

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