Wade-Giles romanization  Huai-an , also spelled  Hwaian 

      city and river port, north-central Jiangsu (Kiangsu) sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated on the Grand Canal, located at the point where (until 1853) it crossed the lower course of the Huang He (Yellow River). The city came into being in 2001, when what were then the cities of Huai'an and Huaiyin (located a short distance to the north) and several other surrounding administrative entities were merged to form a prefecture-level city under the name Huai'an; the two former cities became districts of the new municipality (the former Huai'an renamed Chuzhou). Pop. (2002 est.) city, 747,873; (2007 est.) urban agglom., 1,264,000.


      Huaiyin county was founded in the 2nd century BCE but was later abolished, not to be reestablished until the 7th century CE. Huaiyin was then the place where the Shanyang Canal from Yangzhou joined the lower course of the Huai River. However, it was overshadowed in importance by Huai'an (now the Chuzhou district) to the south. After the 1120s it ceased even to be a county seat. At that time too the name Qingjiang, or Qingjiang Harbour, first appeared.

      With the construction of the new Grand Canal in 1276, the town again became a centre of transport. Locks were built there at the beginning of the 15th century, and it became the place at which travelers from the south left their boats to travel overland by road to Beijing and northern China. It grew in importance between the 15th and 17th centuries, and in the latter part of the 18th century the town, located on both banks of the canal, was provided with a double ring of walls. This growth was to some extent at the expense of the older city of Huai'an. In 1914, after the founding of the Chinese republic, Huai'an was demoted to county status, and Qingjiang was raised to county-seat status under its old name of Huaiyin; the county seat was separated from the county to set up a Qingjiang city in 1951. In 1983 this city, along with Huaiyin, Huai'an, and several other counties became Huaiyin city.

      In former times Huai'an was a city of considerable importance. Until the 12th century the Huai River flowed to the sea some distance to the north, and the city was served by the section of the Grand Canal between the Huai and the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). A county had been established there in the 2nd century BCE. In the early 4th century CE Huai'an became the administrative seat of a commandery (district controlled by a commander) and was walled. In 583, under the Sui dynasty (581–618), it received the name Chu prefecture, by which it was known until the 12th century.

      With the completion of the New Bian Canal (Bian Canal) in 607, it became a city of major economic importance as a canal port on the route by which grain was sent from the Yangtze northwest to the capital cities of Chang'an (present-day Xi'an) in Shaanxi province and Luoyang in Henan province. The city also functioned as a collecting centre for tax grain from the rich rice-growing lands of the Huai River plain, as a centre of the salt industry in coastal Jiangsu, and as a major seaport whose shipping was mostly engaged in the northern coastal traffic to Korea and Japan. During the 7th to 9th centuries, it had a considerable foreign merchant community, including many Koreans. When the locality fell to the Jin (Jin dynasty) (Juchen) in the early 12th century, the city's role was changed to that of a major strategic centre in the frontier confrontation between the Nan (Southern) Song dynasty (1127–1279) and the Jin regime. At that time it first received the name Huai'an (meaning “Huai Pacified”).

      The revival of the grain-transport system under the Yuan (Yuan dynasty), or Mongol, dynasty (1206–1368) and subsequently under the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) made Huai'an a transport centre of immense importance, the site of vast granaries, and a centre of the transport administration. Although a change of course of the Huang He in 1194 had blocked the mouth of the Huai River, robbing Huai'an of its role as a seaport, the town grew rapidly. In 1560 both the old city and the newer settlement, which had grown up since the 14th century, were surrounded by strong fortifications. Throughout the Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12) it remained a superior prefecture named Huai'an, but its importance declined after the mid-19th century, when the Grand Canal gradually fell into decay. Huai'an, however, retained a provincial role as a transport centre and as a collecting centre for agricultural produce, above all, of rice from the Huai River valley.

      In 1912 it ceased to be a superior prefecture and two years later was demoted to the status of a county. It was established as a city in 1946, which after 1948 was named Lianghuai, when it was also combined with Huaiyin county. Shortly thereafter, however, it reverted back to county status, retaining that designation until 1988, when it was again established as a county-level city under the jurisdiction of Huaiyin city.

The contemporary city
      Since 1949 Huai'an has revived considerably, owing to the completion of the Subei Canal (which crosses the Grand Canal there) and to the extensive repairs that have restored the northern sections of the Grand Canal system itself to service. The Subei Canal once again gives medium-sized vessels direct access to the sea from Huai'an. In addition, the city is the focus of a network of newly canalized rivers that crisscross the coastal area of Jiangsu north of the Subei Canal. All this helped turn Huai'an into an important hub of water routes in northern Jiangsu.

      Huai'an is also the focus of the road network of northern Jiangsu and is on the expressway between the provincial cities of Xuzhou (northwest) and Yangzhou (south). In addition, it lies on the rail line between Nantong (southeast) and Xuzhou via Xinyi. Although the city remains primarily a transportation and marketing centre, it has some light manufacturing (cigarettes, textiles, and distilled liquors). The main products of the surrounding area are cotton, grain, rice, kaoliang (a variety of grain sorghum), and some sweet corn (maize).

      Huai'an has been renowned since ancient times for its refined and intellectual atmosphere and has been the hometown of many notable individuals, including the 16th-century novelist Wu Cheng'en and the 20th-century statesman Zhou Enlai. The birthplaces of both men (that for Wu is reconstructed) are maintained as museums. Two natural areas in the western reaches of the city— Hongze Lake and Tieshan Temple National Forest Park—are popular tourist destinations.

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Universalium. 2010.

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