Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton

▪ British botanist

born June 30, 1817, Halesworth, Suffolk, Eng.
died Dec. 10, 1911, Sunningdale, Berkshire
 English botanist noted for his botanical travels and studies and for his encouragement of Charles Darwin and of Darwin's theories. The younger son of Sir William Jackson Hooker (Hooker, Sir William Jackson), he was assistant director of the Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew Gardens) at Kew from 1855 to 1865 and, succeeding his father, was then director from 1865 to 1885.

      Hooker, unlike his father, had the benefit of a formal education and was graduated from the University of Glasgow with an M.D., in 1839. Through his familiarity with his father's herbarium, he was well prepared for the first of his many travels—as surgeon-botanist aboard HMS Erebus on the Antarctic expedition of 1839–43. Thereafter, a steady stream of publications followed, punctuated by his own travels: The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery-Ships Erebus and Terror in 1839–1843 (1844–60); Rhododendrons of Sikkim Himalya (1849); The Flora of British India (1872–97); Handbook of the New Zealand Flora (1864); and Journal of a Tour in Marocco and the Great Atlas (1878). His last major botanical expedition, to the Rocky Mountains and California (1877), led to the publication of several important papers concerning the relationship of American and Asian floras. His travels resulted in the discovery of species new to science, many of which were soon introduced to horticultural circles. Even more important, however, were the data, which gained him an international reputation as a plant geographer.

      In 1851 Joseph Hooker married Frances Henslow, the daughter of a botanist. Six children survived her death in 1874. By his second wife, Hyacinth Symonds Jardine, whom he married in 1876, he had two sons. He became assistant director of Kew in 1855, a position he retained until 1865, when he succeeded his father as director, serving in that capacity until his own retirement in 1885. Many honours came to Hooker, including the presidency of the Royal Society (1872–77) and a knighthood (1877). He remained active until shortly before his death.

      One of the most significant results of his travels was an attempt to explain the geographical distribution of plants and their seemingly anomalous variations. As a close friend of Charles Darwin (Darwin, Charles) and one well acquainted with the latter's early work, Hooker, along with the geologist Sir Charles Lyell, presided at the historic meeting of the Linnean Society (London) in July 1858. It was their function to adjudicate the priority claims concerning natural selection as the mechanism for evolution, which had been advanced simultaneously by Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. By lending his support to a scientific claim that was soon to be attacked on extrascientific grounds, Hooker was among the first to demonstrate the importance and applicability of the evolutionary theory to botany in general and to plant geography in particular. The capstone to Hooker's career came in 1883 with the publication of the final volume of the Genera Plantarum, written in conjunction with George Bentham. This world flora, describing 7,569 genera and approximately 97,000 species of seed-bearing plants, was based on a personal examination of the specimens cited, the vast majority of which were deposited at Kew.

Additional Reading
Mea Allen, The Hookers of Kew, 1785–1911 (1967), is a popular but well-written and carefully researched work, based on correspondence and archival materials at Kew; W.B. Turrill, Pioneer Plant Geography: The Phytogeographical Researches of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1953), is a fundamental study by a leading plant geographer; and Joseph Dalton Hooker: Botanist, Explorer and Administrator (1963), is popular but important because of the author's long association with Kew and his familiarity with Hooker's herbarium.

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Universalium. 2010.

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