Hoffmann, Roald

▪ American chemist
born July 18, 1937, Złoczów, Pol.

      Polish-born American chemist, corecipient, with Fukui Kenichi of Japan, of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1981 for their independent investigations of the mechanisms of chemical reactions.

      Hoffmann immigrated to the United States with his family in 1949. He graduated from Columbia University and received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1962. He collaborated with Robert B. Woodward (Woodward, Robert Burns) at Harvard during the next three years and then joined the Cornell University faculty in 1965.

      Hoffmann undertook the research leading to his share of the prize when he and Woodward sought an explanation of the unexpected course taken by a reaction that Woodward and his colleagues had hoped to use in the synthesis of the complicated molecule of vitamin B12. Hoffmann and Woodward discovered that many reactions involving the formation or breaking of rings of atoms take courses that depend on an identifiable symmetry in the mathematical descriptions of the molecular orbitals that undergo the most change. Their theory, expressed in a set of statements now called the Woodward-Hoffmann rules, accounts for the failure of certain cyclic compounds to form from apparently appropriate starting materials, though others are readily produced; it also clarifies the geometric arrangement of the atoms in the products formed when the rings in cyclic compounds are broken.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HOFFMANN, ROALD — (1937– ), chemist, Nobel Prize winner. Born in Zolochev, Poland, Hoffmann immigrated to the United States in 1949. After receiving a bachelor s degree from Columbia University in 1958, he attended Harvard University, where he was awarded an M.A.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hoffmann , Roald — (1937–) Polish born American chemist Born in Zloczow, Poland (now Zolochez in Ukraine), Hoffmann was moved at the age of four with his family to a labor camp. His father was executed for trying to escape, but Hoffmann and his mother were smuggled …   Scientists

  • Hoffmann,Roald — Hoff·mann (hŏfʹmən, hôfʹmän ), Roald. Born 1937. Polish born American chemist. He shared a 1981 Nobel Prize for applying quantum mechanics theories to the analysis of chemical reactions. * * * …   Universalium

  • Hoffmann, Roald — ► (n. 1937) Físico estadounidense de origen polaco. Fue premio Nobel de Química en 1981, junto con K. Fukui, por su contribución al estudio teórico de las reacciones químicas …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Roald Hoffmann — (* 18. Juli 1937 in Złoczów, Polen, heute Ukraine) ist ein US amerikanischer Chemiker, der zusammen mit dem Japaner Kenichi Fukui im Jahre 1981 den Nobelpreis für Chemie für die von beiden unabhängig voneinander entwickelten Theorien zum Verlauf… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hoffmann — Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann, Friedrich Hoffmann, Joseph Hoffmann, Roald Hoffmann, horno de * * * (as used in expressions) Hoffmann, E(rnst) T(heodor) A(madeus) Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann Hoffmann, Josef …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Roald Hoffmann — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Roald Hoffmann (nacido el 18 de julio de 1937 como Roald Safran Hoffmann es el apellido de su padrastro) es un químico teórico y profesor universitario estadounidense, de origen polaco, que ganó el Premio Nobel de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Roald Hoffmann — Naissance 18 juillet 1937 Złoczów (Pologne (à présent Ukraine)) Nationalité Polonaise/Américaine Champs chimie Institution université Cornell …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Roald Dahl — in 1954 Born 13 September 1916(1916 09 13) Llandaff, Llandaff, Wales, United Kingdom Died 23 Novembe …   Wikipedia

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