Heywood, Thomas

▪ English actor and playwright
born 1574?, Lincolnshire, Eng.
died Aug. 16, 1641, London

      English actor-playwright whose career spans the peak periods of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama.

      Heywood apparently attended the University of Cambridge, though his attendance there remains undocumented. After arriving in London sometime before 1598, he joined Philip Henslowe (Henslowe, Philip)'s theatrical company, the Admiral's Men, and was subsequently active in London as a playwright and actor for the rest of his life. He claimed to have had “either an entire hand, or at least a maine finger” in 220 plays. Of these, about 30 survive that are generally accepted as wholly or partly his.

      Most of Heywood's plays are theatrical mélanges employing two or more contrasted plots, poorly unified and liberally laced with clowning. They are sentimental in theme but realistic in setting and reveal an affectionate regard for all the daily sights, sounds, and activities of London. He produced such romances as The Captives and A Pleasant Comedy, Called a Maidenhead Well Lost (both in 1634); such adventure plays as The Fair Maid of the West (1631); and seven lord mayor's pageants, completed between 1631 and 1639. He also wrote masques, mythological cycles, and chronicle plays (chronicle play). The most popular of his history plays, If You Know Not Me, You Know Nobody (1605–06), is about Elizabeth I.

      Heywood's art found its finest expression in the field of domestic sentiment. His masterpiece, A Woman Killed with Kindness (1607), is one of the earliest middle-class tragedies. His plays were so popular that they were sometimes performed at two theatres simultaneously. His charming masque Love's Mistress (1636) was seen by Charles I and his queen three times in eight days.

      Heywood also wrote many books and pamphlets that are now of interest chiefly to students of the period. His most important prose work was An Apology for Actors (1612), an account of actors' place and dignity and their role in society since antiquity.

Additional Reading
Kathleen E. McLuskie, Dekker and Heywood: Professional Dramatists (1993); Michael Wentworth, Thomas Heywood: A Reference Guide (1986).

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Universalium. 2010.

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