Haley, Margaret Angela

▪ American educator and labour leader
born Nov. 15, 1861, Joliet, Ill., U.S.
died Jan. 5, 1939, Chicago, Ill.

      American educator, a strong proponent and organizer of labour unions for Chicago public school teachers.

      Haley attended public and convent schools and from 1876 taught in a succession of schools around Chicago. She was an early member of the Chicago Teachers' Federation, formed in March 1897, and rose quickly in the organization to become a district vice president by 1900. In 1901 she left teaching to become a full-time business agent for the union. Her first successful fight for the union was against the Chicago Board of Education's refusal to honour a promised salary increase in 1899 and its rescission of an earlier one in 1900. In 1902 she led the Chicago Teachers' Federation into the Chicago Federation of Labor.

      About that time Haley also took over and became president of the moribund National Federation of Teachers. She used that organization to force the larger and more important National Education Association, until then entirely dominated by college presidents and administrators, to become more responsive to the needs of grade-school teachers. She achieved a major victory in Illinois with the enactment in 1907 of a state pension plan for teachers. She was also a vigorous supporter of a range of progressive reforms, including woman suffrage, child labour legislation, direct primaries and the referendum, and direct election of U.S. senators, and she threw the weight of her union behind them.

      During 1915–17 Haley led a battle between the Chicago Teachers' Federation and the Board of Education over the federation's affiliation with the labour movement. The outcome was her agreement to take the union out of the Chicago Federation of Labor in exchange for the enactment of a state tenure law for teachers. She remained nonetheless active in the Women's Trade Union League, of which she was a national vice president, and from its founding in 1916 she worked as an organizer for the American Federation of Teachers. She also edited and largely wrote the Chicago Teachers' Federation Bulletin from 1901 to 1908 and Margaret Haley's Bulletin in 1915–16 and again from 1925 to 1931. She died after a period of semiretirement.

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Universalium. 2010.

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