Geiger, Hans

▪ German physicist
byname of  Johannes Wilhelm Geiger  
born Sept. 30, 1882, Neustadt an der Haardt, Ger.
died Sept. 24, 1945, Potsdam

      German physicist who introduced the first successful detector (the Geiger counter) of individual alpha particles and other ionizing radiations.

      Geiger was awarded the Ph.D. by the University of Erlangen in 1906 and shortly thereafter joined the staff of the University of Manchester, where he became one of the most valuable collaborators of Ernest Rutherford. At Manchester, Geiger built the first version of his particle counter and used it and other radiation detectors in experiments that led to the identification of the alpha particle as the nucleus of the helium atom and to Rutherford's correct proposal (1912) that, in any atom, the nucleus occupies a very small volume at the centre.

      Moving in 1912 to the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (“German National Institute for Science and Technology”) in Berlin, Geiger continued his studies of atomic structure. During World War I he served as an artillery officer in the German army. With Walther Bothe, Geiger devised the technique of coincidence counting and used it in 1924 to clarify the details of the Compton effect. In 1925 Geiger accepted his first teaching position, at the University of Kiel. There, he and Walther Müller improved the sensitivity, performance, and durability of the particle counter; the Geiger-Müller counter detects not only alpha particles but beta particles (electrons) and ionizing electromagnetic photons. In 1929 Geiger took up a post at the University of Tübingen, where he made his first observation of a cosmic-ray shower. He continued to investigate cosmic rays, artificial radioactivity, and nuclear fission after accepting a position in 1936 at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin, which he held until he died.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Geiger, Hans — ► (1882 1945) Físico alemán. Desarrolló la cámara de ionización utilizada en la detección de partículas alfa. En 1913 inventó el contador de partículas o contador de Geiger, que perfeccionó con la colaboración de Müller construyendo en 1928 el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Geiger , Hans Wilhelm — (1882–1945) German physicist Geiger was born at Neustadt in Germany and studied physics at the universities of Munich and Erlangen, obtaining his doctorate (1906) for work on electrical discharges in gases. He then took up a position in England… …   Scientists

  • Hans Geiger (Ökonom) — Hans Geiger (* 1943 in Zürich) ist ein Schweizer Bankmanager und Wirtschaftswissenschaftler. Geiger ist mit drei Geschwistern in Zürich Wipkingen aufgewachsen. Er besuchte die Primarschulen und das Realgymnasium in Zürich und absolvierte 1962 die …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Geiger — V. «contador Geiger». * * * Geiger, Hans Geiger, contador de * * * (as used in expressions) Geiger, Abraham Geiger, contador contador Geiger Müller Geiger, Theodor Julius …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hans-Joachim Kahler — Naissance 28 mars 1908 Morhange (Moselle) Décès 14 janvier 2000 Hamburg Origine …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Geiger — (Hans) (1882 1945) physicien allemand; inventeur d un compteur de particules (1913), qu il perfectionna avec Müller (1928) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Hans Geiger — Infobox Scientist name = Hans Geiger birth date = September 30, 1882 birth place = Neustadt an der Haardt death date = September 24, 1945 death place = Potsdam residence = citizenship = nationality = German ethnicity = field = physics work… …   Wikipedia

  • Hans Geiger — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Geiger. Hans Geiger (1928) Johannes Wihlem Geiger (Neustadt an der Weinstraße 30 septembre  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Geiger counter — Gei·ger count·er gī gər .kau̇n tər n an instrument for detecting the presence and intensity of radiations (as cosmic rays or particles from a radioactive substance) by means of the ionizing effect on an enclosed gas which results in a pulse that… …   Medical dictionary

  • Hans Dorr — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dorr. Hans Dorr Naissance 7 avril 1912 Sontheim Bade Wurtemberg Décès 17 avril 1945 (à 85 ans) Judenburg Autriche Origine …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.