Gehry, Frank O.

▪ American architect
in full  Frank Owen Gehry , original name  Ephraim Owen Goldberg 
born Feb. 28, 1929, Toronto, Ont., Can.

      American architect and designer whose original, sculptural, often audacious work won him worldwide renown.

      Gehry's family immigrated to Los Angeles in 1947. He studied architecture at the University of Southern California (1949–51; 1954) and city planning at Harvard University (1956–57). After working for several architectural firms, he established his own company, Frank O. Gehry & Associates, in 1962 and established its successor, Gehry Partners, in 2002.

      Reacting, like many of his contemporaries, against the cold and often formulaic Modernist buildings that had begun to dot many cityscapes, Gehry began to experiment with unusual expressive devices and to search for a personal vocabulary. In his early work he built unique, quirky structures that emphasized human scale and contextual integrity. His early experiments are perhaps best embodied by the “renovations” he made to his own home (1978, 1991–94) in Santa Monica, Calif. Gehry essentially stripped the two-story home down to its frame and then built a chain-link and corrugated-steel frame around it, complete with asymmetrical protrusions of steel rod and glass. Gehry made the traditional bungalow—and the architectural norms it embodied—appear to have exploded wide open. He continued these design experiments in two popular lines of corrugated cardboard furniture, Easy Edges (1969–73) and Experimental Edges (1979–82). Gehry's ability to undermine the viewer's expectations of traditional materials and forms has led him to be grouped with the deconstructivist (deconstruction) movement in architecture, although his play upon architectural tradition has also caused him to be linked to postmodernism.

      Treating each new commission as “a sculptural object, a spatial container, a space with light and air,” Gehry was rewarded with commissions the world over throughout the 1980s and '90s. These works possessed the deconstructed quality of his Santa Monica home but began to display a pristine grandeur that suited his increasingly public projects. Notable structures from the period include the Vitra Furniture Museum and Factory (1987) in Weil am Rhein, Germany; the American Center (1988–94) in Paris; and the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum (1990–93) at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

 Gehry's reputation soared in the late 1990s. By this time Gehry's trademark style had become buildings that resemble undulating free-form sculpture. This form arguably reached its zenith in his Guggenheim Museum (1991–97) in Bilbao, Spain. In this structure Gehry combined curvaceous titanium forms with interconnecting limestone masses to create a sculptural feat of engineering. He further explored these concerns in the Experience Music Project (completed 2000) in Seattle. Constructed of a fabricated steel frame wrapped in colourful sheet metal, the structure was, according to Gehry, modeled on the shape of a guitar—particularly, a smashed electric guitar. As with the Guggenheim structure, he employed cutting-edge computer technology to uncover the engineering solutions that could bring his sculptural sketches to life. In his 2008 renovation of the Art Museum of Ontario in his hometown, Gehry retained the original building (1918) but removed an artistically unsuccessful entryway that had been added in the 1990s. Although the updated museum shows many characteristic Gehry touches, one critic called it “one of Mr. Gehry's most gentle and self-possessed designs.”

 Gehry became known for his work on music venues. The Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles was designed before the Bilbao museum but completed in 2003 to great acclaim. The Jay Pritzker Pavilion in Chicago's Millennium Park was completed in 2004. He also built halls for Bard College north of New York City and was commissioned in 2003 to build a hall for the New World Symphony in Miami Beach, Fla. In the early 21st century Gehry continued to receive numerous large-scale commissions.

      Although critical opinion is sometimes divided over his radical structures, Gehry's work made architecture popular and talked about in a manner not seen in the United States since Frank Lloyd Wright (Wright, Frank Lloyd). Among his many awards are the Pritzker Architecture Prize (1989), the National Medal of the Arts (1998), and the American Institute of Architects Gold Medal (1999).

Additional Reading
An overview of earlier writings on the architect can be found in Sara S. Richardson, Frank O. Gehry: A Bibliography (1987). Later general studies include Francesco Dal Co, Kurt W. Forster, and Hadley Arnold, Frank O. Gehry: The Complete Works (1998); and Jean-Louis Cohen et al., Frank O. Gehry: The Art of Architecture (2001). Commentaries from Gehry are contained alongside those of scholars in Rosemarie Haag Bletter et al., The Architecture of Frank Gehry (1986); and Mildred Friedman (ed.), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Process (1999). The Guggenheim project is examined from conception to construction in Coosje van Bruggen, Frank O. Gehry: Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (1997, reissued 1999).

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Universalium. 2010.

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