Gabrieli, Giovanni

▪ Italian composer
born 1556?, Venice
died Aug. 12?, 1612, Venice

      Italian Renaissance composer, organist, and teacher, celebrated for his sacred music, including massive choral and instrumental motets for the liturgy.

      Giovanni Gabrieli studied with his uncle, Andrea Gabrieli (Gabrieli, Andrea), whom he regarded with almost filial affection. To the latter's foreign travels and connections Giovanni owed his chance to become known abroad. Giovanni also served (1575–79) under Orlando di Lasso in Munich. In 1584 he returned to Venice and a year later succeeded his uncle as second organist of St. Mark's Cathedral—the post he held for life.

      After Andrea's death in 1585, Giovanni quickly assumed the limelight in the field of ceremonial music, though he was never so active as a madrigalist. The publication of his uncle's music in 1587 was a mark of respect but also included some of his own church music. Giovanni's foreign connections included Hans Leo Hassler (Hassler, Hans Leo), the German composer and former pupil of Andrea, who avidly adopted the Venetian style, and patrons such as the Fugger family and Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. In later years Giovanni became a famous teacher; his most notable student was the German Heinrich Schütz.

      After 1587 Giovanni's principal publications were the two immense Sacrae symphoniae of 1597 and 1615 (printed posthumously), both of which contained purely instrumental music for church use or massive choral and instrumental motets for the liturgy. Like his uncle, he usually conceived the music for separated choirs but showed an increasing tendency to specify which instruments were to be used and which choirs were to consist of soloists and full choir, as well as to distinguish the musical style of each, thus initiating a completely new approach to the creation of musical colour and orchestration. In the well-known Sonata pian e forte, for eight instruments, directions to play loud and soft are given. Among the motets, his masterpiece is perhaps In ecclesiis, for four soloists, four-part choir, violin, three cornets, two trombones, and organ, these forces pitted against one another in an endless variety of combinations.

Major Works
Various motets, among them In ecclesiis; madrigals in various collections; Canzoni e sonate (1615); Sacrae symphoniae, book 1 (1597), including the Sonata pian'e forte; Sacrae symphoniae (1615); Concerti di Andrea et di Giovanni Gabrieli a 6–16 voci (1587, containing pieces by Andrea).

Additional Reading
Egon Kenton, Life and Works of Giovanni Gabrieli (1967); and Denis Arnold, Giovanni Gabrieli and the Music of the Venetian High Renaissance (1979, reprinted 1986).

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Universalium. 2010.

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