exile and banishment

law
      prolonged absence from one's country imposed by vested authority as a punitive measure. It most likely originated among early civilizations from the practice of designating an offender an outcast and depriving him of the comfort and protection of his group. Exile was practiced by the Greeks chiefly in cases of homicide, although ostracism was a form of exile imposed for political reasons. In Rome (Roman law), exile (exsilium) arose as a means of circumventing the death penalty (see capital punishment). Before a death sentence was pronounced, a Roman citizen could escape by voluntary exile. Later, degrees of exile were introduced, including temporary or permanent exile, exile with or without loss of citizenship, and exile with or without confiscation of property. The Romans generally determined punishment by class, applying sentences of banishment to the upper classes and sentences of forced labour to the lower classes.

      From the Anglo-Saxon penalty of outlawry, English law developed the practice of banishing criminals as an alternative to capital punishment. By the 18th century, English convicts were being deported to penal colonies (penal colony) in North America and Australia. The first convoy to take the 15,800-mile (25,427 km) trip to Australia departed on May 13, 1787, with 730 prisoners. Banishment and transportation to Australia ended in 1868. In the 20th century, exile was frequently imposed for political offenses, a notorious destination being the Russian region of Siberia, especially during the era of the Soviet Union.

Geoffrey Abbott
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Exile — multipleissues refimprove = May 2007 laundry = January 2008Exile means to be away from one s home (i.e. city, state or country) while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return. It… …   Wikipedia

  • Exile — Ex ile, n. [OE. exil, fr. L. exilium, exsilium, fr. exsuil one who quits, or is banished from, his native soil; ex out + solum ground, land, soil, or perh. fr.the root of salire to leap, spring; cf. F. exil. Cf. {Sole} of the foot, {Saltation}.]… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • BANISHMENT — BANISHMENT, a form of punishment widely imposed throughout the ancient world. India, the Greek cities, the Roman republic, and the Teutonic peoples all used this practice to rid themselves of undesirables, ranging from criminals   to political… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • banishment — I noun deportation, discharge, dismissal, displacement, ejection, eviction, excommunication, exile, exilement, expatriation, expulsion, extradition, interdictio aquae et ignis, involuntary exile, ostracism, ostracization, ousting, outlawry,… …   Law dictionary

  • Banishment in the Bible — Banishment or Exile can be a form of punishment. It means to be away from one s home (i.e. city, state or country) while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return. As it is a… …   Wikipedia

  • exile — ► NOUN 1) the state of being barred from one s native country. 2) a person who lives in exile. ► VERB ▪ expel and bar (someone) from their native country. ORIGIN Latin exilium banishment …   English terms dictionary

  • exile — noun 1》 the state of being barred from one s native country. 2》 a person who lives in exile. verb expel and bar (someone) from their native country. Origin ME: the noun is from OFr. exil banishment , exile banished person ; the verb is from OFr.… …   English new terms dictionary

  • exile — [13] Latin exul meant ‘banished person’. This was formed from the prefix ex ‘out’ and a prehistoric Indo European base *ul ‘go’ (represented also in Latin ambulāre ‘walk’, source of English amble and ambulance). From it was created the noun… …   The Hutchinson dictionary of word origins

  • exile — [13] Latin exul meant ‘banished person’. This was formed from the prefix ex ‘out’ and a prehistoric Indo European base *ul ‘go’ (represented also in Latin ambulāre ‘walk’, source of English amble and ambulance). From it was created the noun… …   Word origins

  • exile — I. n. 1. Banishment, ostracism, proscription, expulsion (from one s country), expatriation. 2. Banished person. 3. Separation (voluntary or by circumstances) from country, sunderment from home and kindred, isolation from fatherland and friends. 4 …   New dictionary of synonyms

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