de Chirico, Giorgio

▪ Italian painter
born July 10, 1888, Vólos, Greece
died November 19, 1978, Rome, Italy

      Italian painter who, with Carlo Carrà (Carrà, Carlo) and Giorgio Morandi (Morandi, Giorgio), founded the style of Metaphysical painting.

 After studying art in Athens and Florence, de Chirico moved to Germany in 1906 and entered the Munich Academy of Fine Arts. His early style was influenced by Arnold Böcklin (Böcklin, Arnold)'s and Max Klinger (Klinger, Max)'s paintings, which juxtapose the fantastic with the commonplace. By 1910 de Chirico was living in Florence, where he began painting a unique series of landscapes that included The Enigma of an Autumn Afternoon (1910), in which the long, sinister, and illogical shadows cast by unseen objects onto empty city spaces contrast starkly with bright, clear light that is rendered in brooding green tonalities. Moving to Paris in 1911, de Chirico gained the admiration of Pablo Picasso and Guillaume Apollinaire (Apollinaire, Guillaume) with his ambiguously ominous scenes of deserted piazzas. In these works, such as The Soothsayer's Recompense (1913) and The Mystery and Melancholy of a Street (1914), classical statues, dark arcades, and small, isolated figures are overpowered by their own shadows and by severe, oppressive architecture.

      In 1915 de Chirico was conscripted into the Italian army and stationed at Ferrara, Italy. There, he was able to continue making art and practiced a modification of his earlier manner, marked by more compact groupings of incongruous objects. Diagnosed with a nervous condition, he was admitted into a military hospital, where he met Carlo Carrà in 1917; together the two artists developed the style they named Metaphysical painting. In de Chirico's paintings of this period, such as the Grand Metaphysical Interior (1917) and The Seer (1915), the colours are brighter, and dressmakers' mannequins, compasses, biscuits, and paintings on easels assume a mysterious significance within enigmatic landscapes or interiors.

      The element of mystery in de Chirico's paintings dwindled after 1919, when he became interested in the technical methods of the Italian classical tradition. He eventually began painting in a more realistic and academic style, and by the 1930s he had broken with his avant-garde colleagues and disclaimed his earlier works. De Chirico's Metaphysical paintings exercised a profound influence on the painters of the Surrealist (Surrealism) movement in the 1920s.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chirico, Giorgio de — born July 10, 1888, Vólos, Greece died Nov. 19, 1978, Rome, Italy Italian painter. Born to Italian parents in Greece, he studied art in Munich and began painting images juxtaposing the fantastic with the commonplace. In 1911 he moved to Paris,… …   Universalium

  • Chirico,Giorgio de — Chi·ri·co (kîrʹĭ kō , kēʹrē ), Giorgio de. 1888 1978. Italian painter whose works are characterized by deep shadow and perspective, barren landscapes, and elements of classical architecture and sculpture. * * * …   Universalium

  • Chirico, Giorgio de — ► (1888 1978) Pintor italiano. En 1915 creó la pintura metafísica. Se adhirió luego al surrealismo. En 1930 retomó una pintura de técnicas clásicas. Autor de Naturaleza muerta en un paisaje y Héctor y Andrómaca, entre otras. * * * (10 jul. 1888,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • De Chirico, Giorgio — (1888–1978)    Born in Greece, De Chirico is one of the most enigmatic painters of the 20th century. After an early cubist period, he was influenced by the futurist painter Carlo Carra. Together with Carra, De Chirico gave birth to the so called… …   Historical Dictionary of modern Italy

  • De Chirico, Giorgio — (7/10/1888 Volos, Greece 11/20/1978 Rome) (Italy)    Painter, writer, theatrical designer, sculptor, and printmaker. Studied with E Gilleron and at the Higher School of Fine Arts in Athens where he studied with G. Rodos, C. Bolonakis, and G. Jaco …   Dictionary of erotic artists: painters, sculptors, printmakers, graphic designers and illustrators

  • Chirico — Giorgio De Chirico Giorgio De Chirico Portrait de Giorgio de Chirico par Carl van Vechten Naissance 10 juillet 1888 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Giorgio de Chirico — Portrait de Giorgio de Chirico par Carl van Vechten Naissance 10 juillet 1888 …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Giorgio De Chirico — Giorgio de Chirico, 5. Dezember 1936 Fotografie von Carl van Vechten, aus der Van Vechten Collection der Library of Congress Giorgio de Chirico (* 10. Juli 1888 in Volos, Griechenland; † 1 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Giorgio Di Chirico — Giorgio de Chirico, 5. Dezember 1936 Fotografie von Carl van Vechten, aus der Van Vechten Collection der Library of Congress Giorgio de Chirico (* 10. Juli 1888 in Volos, Griechenland; † 1 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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