Curie, Pierre

▪ French chemist
born May 15, 1859, Paris, France
died April 19, 1906, Paris
 French physical chemist and cowinner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903. He and his wife, Marie Curie (Curie, Marie), discovered radium and polonium in their investigation of radioactivity.

      Educated by his father, a doctor, Curie developed a passion for mathematics at the age of 14 and showed a particular aptitude for spatial geometry, which was later to help him in his work on crystallography. Matriculating at the age of 16 and obtaining his licence ès sciences at 18, he was in 1878 taken on as laboratory assistant at the Sorbonne. There Curie carried out his first work on the calculation of the wavelength of heat waves. This was followed by very important studies on crystals (crystal), in which he was helped by his elder brother Jacques. The problem of the distribution of crystalline matter according to the laws of symmetry was to become one of his major preoccupations. The Curie brothers associated the phenomenon of pyroelectricity with a change in the volume of the crystal in which it appears, and thus they arrived at the discovery of piezoelectricity. Later, Pierre was able to formulate the principle of symmetry, which states the impossibility of bringing about a specific physical process in an environment lacking a certain minimal dissymmetry characteristic of the process. Further, this dissymmetry cannot be found in the effect if it is not preexistent in the cause. He went on to define the symmetry of different physical phenomena.

      Appointed supervisor (1882) at the School of Physics and Industrial Chemistry at Paris, Curie resumed his own research and, after a long study of buffered movements, managed to perfect the analytical balance by creating an aperiodic balance with direct reading of the last weights. Then he began his celebrated studies on magnetism. He undertook to write a doctoral thesis with the aim of discovering if there exist any transitions between the three types of magnetism: ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism. In order to measure the magnetic coefficients, he constructed a torsion balance that measured 0.01 mg, which, in a simplified version, is still used and called the magnetic balance of Curie and Chèneveau. He discovered that the magnetic coefficients of attraction of paramagnetic bodies vary in inverse proportion to the absolute temperature—Curie's Law. He then established an analogy between paramagnetic bodies and perfect gases and, as a result of this, between ferromagnetic bodies and condensed fluids.

      The totally different character of paramagnetism and diamagnetism demonstrated by Curie was later explained theoretically by Paul Langevin. In 1895 Curie defended his thesis on magnetism and obtained a doctorate of science.

      In the spring of 1894 Curie met Marie Skłodowska (Curie, Marie); their marriage (July 25, 1895) marked the beginning of a world-famous scientific achievement, beginning with the discovery (1898) of polonium and then of radium. The phenomenon of radioactivity, discovered (1896) by Henri Becquerel, had attracted Marie Curie's attention, and she and Pierre determined to study a mineral, pitchblende, the specific activity of which is superior to that of pure uranium. While working with Marie to extract pure substances from ores, an undertaking that really required industrial resources but that they achieved in relatively primitive conditions, Pierre himself concentrated on the physical study (including luminous and chemical effects) of the new radiations. Through the action of magnetic fields on the rays given out by the radium, he proved the existence of particles electrically positive, negative, and neutral; these Ernest Rutherford was afterward to call alpha, beta, and gamma rays. Pierre then studied these radiations by calorimetry and also observed the physiological effects of radium, thus opening the way to radium therapy.

 Refusing a chair at the University of Geneva in order to continue his joint work with Marie, Pierre Curie was appointed lecturer (1900) and professor (1904) at the Sorbonne. He was elected to the Academy of Sciences (1905), having in 1903 jointly with Marie received the Royal Society's Davy Medal and jointly with her and Becquerel the Nobel Prize for Physics. He was run over by a dray in the rue Dauphine in Paris in 1906 and died instantly. An exceptional physicist, he was one of the main founders of modern physics. His complete works were published in 1908.

Additional Reading
Marie Curie, Pierre Curie, trans. from French by Charlotte Kellogg and Vernon Kellogg (1923, reissued 1963), was written by his wife. Rosalynd Pflaum, Grand Obsession: Madame Curie and Her World (1989), traces the lives of Marie and Pierre Curie. Eugénie Cotton, Les Curie (1963), by a student of Marie Curie, contains recollections of the Curie family and an assessment of their scientific accomplishments.

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Universalium. 2010.

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