Clement (VII)

original name  Robert of Geneva , French  Robert de Genève 
born 1342, Geneva [Switzerland]
died Sept. 16, 1394, Avignon, Provence [France]

      first antipope (1378–94) of the Western (Western Schism) (Great) Schism that troubled the Roman Catholic church for 40 years.

      After serving as bishop of Thérouanne, county of Artois, from 1361, he became archbishop of Cambrai, in the Low Countries, in 1368 and cardinal in 1371. As papal legate to northern Italy (1376–78), he pillaged Cesena in 1377, where 4,000 antipapal rebels were massacred in the war against Florence.

      He was a leader of the cardinals who declared the unpopular Italian pope Urban VI's election invalid, and he was chosen antipope at Fondi, Papal States, as Clement VII on Sept. 20, 1378. His coronation in October precipitated the Great Schism of the West (1378–1417). By the end of that year, France favoured Clement over Urban, whom England supported. European countries then split over the papal claimants, and the Eastern church generally sided with Clement. He hoped to dislodge Urban from the Vatican with help from French mercenaries who were occupying the castle of Sant'Angelo, Rome. After Sant'Angelo fell in April 1379, Clement retired to Naples, where Queen Joan I recognized him as pope. But the Neapolitans favoured Urban, and Clement soon settled at Avignon.

      The church's dual papacy caused profound confusion in territories that were uncertain which pope to obey; the difference on this issue between England and France prolonged the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453). France was especially given the chance to intervene in Italian politics. King Charles V the Wise (Charles V) of France not only recognized Clement but on the day of Clement's death declared him “the true Shepherd of the Church.” Clement himself died convinced of his legitimacy.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Clement VII —    1) (1478–1534)    Pope.    Clement VII was born Giulio de’ Medici and he was a cousin of Pope Leo x. He was appointed Archbishop of Florence and made a Cardinal in 1513 and he was highly influential during his cousin’s Pontificate. In 1523 he… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Clement VII — (Giulio de Medici) 1478 1534, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1523 34 (nephew of Lorenzo de Medici). * * * orig. Giulio de Medici born May 26, 1478, Florence died Sept. 25, 1534, Rome Pope (1523–34). The illegitimate son of Giuliano de Medici (see… …   Universalium

  • Clement VII — (Giulio de Medici; r. 1523 1534)    Clement VII was the illegitimate son of Giuliano de Medici, who was killed in the Pazzi Conspiracy. In 1513, he was appointed archbishop of Florence and cardinal by his cousin, Pope Leo X, who, in 1517, also… …   Dictionary of Renaissance art

  • Clément VII —  Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents souverains partageant un même nom. Clément VII désigne : Jules de Médicis, un pape de l Église catholique. Robert de Genève, un antipape de l Église catholique. Catégorie : Homonymie… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Clement VII — noun Italian pope from 1523 to 1534 who broke with Henry VIII of England after Henry VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon and married Anne Boleyn (1478 1534) • Syn: ↑Giulio de Medici • Instance Hypernyms: ↑pope, ↑Catholic Pope, ↑Roman Catholic Pope …   Useful english dictionary

  • Clement VII (antipape) — Clément VII (antipape)  Pour l’article homonyme, voir Clément VII.  Pour les articles homonymes, voir Robert de Genève …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Clement VII (pape) — Clément VII (pape)  Pour l’article homonyme, voir Clément VII.  Clément VII Pape de l’Église catholique romaine …   Wikipédia en Français

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