Wade-Giles romanization  Ch'ih-feng , Mongolian  Ulaan Hada , Pinyin  Ulanhad 

      city, southeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (qu), northeastern China. It lies on the upper reaches of the Yingjin River, a tributary of the upper Liaoha River (itself a branch of the West Liao River). The name, meaning “Red Mountain” in Chinese, refers to the red-coloured peak overlooking the city from the northeast.

      From early times Chifeng has been a key point of communication between the Chinese and their northern neighbours. In the period of invasion and disunion (3rd–6th century AD), it was a stronghold of Xianbei tribal power. Under the Tang (Tang dynasty) dynasty (618–907) it was a centre for the Khitan, a people of Xianbei descent. During the Ming (Ming dynasty) dynasty (1368–1644) it was controlled by the Duoyan Wei, and in early Manchu times (17th century) it was in the territory of the Left and Right banners (local administrative units) of the Öngüt Mongols. In 1729, after many Chinese (e.g., from Shandong, Hebei, and Shanxi provinces) had settled in the area, the subprefecture of Ulaan Hada was set up to control them; it became a county-level town (called Chifeng) in 1778, was raised to a prefecture in 1907, and became a county seat in 1913.

      Chifeng, which was never walled, was laid out on a spacious plan with solid brick buildings. It has rail links via Jianping, 75 miles (120 km) south, to the main line from Beijing to Shenyang (Mukden); it is also the centre of a road network leading north into the Da Hinggan (Greater Khingan) Mountains, into the interior plains of Inner Mongolia, westward and southward to Hebei and Liaoning provinces. The city serves as a collecting and shipping point for the pastoral products of the Mongols, which include meat, hides, furs, and cattle. Local coal deposits stimulated the growth of coal mining and, with it, electric power generation, textile manufacturing, and food processing. Much of the surrounding land is under cultivation.

      The Chifeng area is rich in archaeological remains, and important prehistoric sites have been discovered nearby. These include a temple, tombs, and numerous artifacts from the Neolithic Hongshan (“Red Hill”) culture of some 3,500 years ago. Pop. (2003 est.) 492,054.

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Universalium. 2010.

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