Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

also called  peroneal muscular atrophy 

      a group of inherited nerve diseases (nervous system disease) characterized by slowly progressive weakness and wasting of the muscles of the lower parts of the extremities. In Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT), the myelin sheath that surrounds motor and sensory nerves gradually deteriorates, blocking the conduction of nerve impulses to the muscles. Onset usually occurs in childhood or in adolescence, with the early-childhood form of the disease being the most rapidly progressive and disabling. CMT manifests with weakness of the leg muscles below the knee (stork leg); this usually results in a foot drop (i.e., the inability to hold the foot in a horizontal position), which causes a disturbance in gait. It occasionally affects the hands. Although the peripheral nerves may be enlarged in some persons with CMT, sensory loss is usually absent or minimal. Bone abnormalities such as curvature of the spine, high arches of the feet (pes cavus), and hammertoes are common. Longevity is not affected, though the disease is progressive. CMT is named for the French neurologists Jean-Martin Charcot (Charcot, Jean-Martin) and Pierre Marie (Marie, Pierre) and the English physician Howard Henry Tooth, who first described the disease in the late 19th century.

      The disease is complicated in its hereditary pattern. Recent investigation has demonstrated several genetic defects associated with the disorder. Several chromosomal abnormalities have been identified, most of which are autosomal dominant; that is, the gene for the disease may come from either parent. Occasionally, CMT may occur sporadically in persons with no family history of the disorder.

      Electrical studies of nerve conduction are usually performed to identify abnormalities and may help classify the type of CMT. There is no specific treatment for the disorder, although leg braces and surgical correction of bone deformities may be beneficial.

Robert Joynt
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease — Infobox Disease Name = Charcot Marie Tooth disease Caption = The foot of a person with Charcot Marie Tooth. The lack of muscle, a high arch, and hammer toes are signs of the genetic disease. DiseasesDB = 5815 DiseasesDB mult= DiseasesDB2|2343… …   Wikipedia

  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease — A neuromuscular disease, the most common inherited disorder of peripheral nerves, characterized by progressively debilitating weakness. The disease is also called peroneal muscular atrophy and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. The foremost …   Medical dictionary

  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease — peroneal muscular atrophy a group of inherited diseases of the peripheral nerves, also known as hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy, causing a gradually progressive weakness and wasting of the muscles of the legs and the lower part of the thighs.… …   The new mediacal dictionary

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  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease — noun a form of neuropathy that can begin between childhood and young adulthood; characterized by weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the hands and lower legs; progression is slow and individuals affected can have a normal life span;… …   Useful english dictionary

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  • Болезнь Шарко-Маритута (Charcot-Marie- Tooth Disease), Атрофия Мышечная Перонеальная (Peroneal Muscular Atrophy) — наследственное заболевание периферических нервов, называемое также врожденной сенсорно двигательной невропатией (hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy); начинается обычно до периода полового созревания; проявляется постепенно прогрессирующей… …   Медицинские термины

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