Chadic languages

Introduction

      largest family of languages in the Afro-Asiatic (Afro-Asiatic languages) phylum. Some 140 or more Chadic languages are spoken, predominantly in Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad. The four subdivisions of the Chadic family—West Chadic, Central Chadic, Masa, and East Chadic—show considerable differences.

      Hausa (Hausa language), a West Chadic language, is one of the major lingua francas (lingua franca) of Africa on the national and international level; approximately 40–50 million people speak it as either a first or a second language. Some other Chadic languages, including some that had fairly large numbers of speakers at the turn of the 21st century, are threatened by extinction in part because of the rapid expansion of Hausa.

Phonetics and phonology
      Chadic languages display up to four different sets of consonants (consonant): voiced, voiceless, glottalized (usually implosive, some ejective), and prenasalized. Languages in Central and part of West Chadic typically have lateral fricatives (/{lbelt}/ and //) as well.

      Vowel systems may have as few as two vowels (vowel) (a and ə) or as many as seven; vowel length tends to be important. Certain vowels may occur only in specific places within the word. Vowel harmony systems are rare but are found in Tangale (Nigeria) and Dangaléat (Chad).

      Chadic languages are often characterized by consonant clusters that require varying sets of vowels (vowel) to be inserted at the beginning or in the middle of the word so as to make it pronounceable. Phonetic diphthongs such as [au] and [ai] often reflect sequences of vowels + approximants, such as in the diphthongs /a+w/ and /a+y/. Such sequences may also give rise to midvowels, as in the Hausa word for ‘horse,' which has two pronunciations: dóokìi (with long monophthong [oo]) and dáukìi (with diphthong [au]); the plural form dáwáakíi displays the sequence /a+w/ of what must be considered the abstract form of the singular, *dáwkìi (the asterisk indicates a reconstructed form).

      All Chadic languages have tonal systems, in which two tones (tone) (or, in some languages, three) are used to distinguish words and other meaningful units. In some languages, such as Kanakuru and Gaʾanda, a phenomenon known as “tonal downstep” has occasionally been observed. In tonal downstep, a group of syllables within a word or word group are generally pronounced on a lower pitch level than those that precede them. In some cases, as in Podoko (Cameroon), downstep occurs when consonants known as “tonal depressors” are in the initial position of the syllable.

Morphology and grammar
      Many Afro-Asiatic languages use a “root and pattern” (root and pattern system) system, traces of which can be found in this family. In a root and pattern system, the basic meaning of the word is expressed by its consonants (the “root”), while a sequence of vowels (the “pattern”) interspersed in the consonantal skeleton adds grammatical information or modifies the basic lexical meaning of the root.

      Although grammatical gender is no longer an operational linguistic feature in many Central Chadic languages, it is reconstructible for nouns, which took masculine or feminine genders in the singular but had a common gender in the plural; pronouns were marked for gender in the second and third persons. Plural formatives are plentiful in West and East Chadic, but the situation is greatly simplified in Central Chadic.

      Verbs can be modified in two major ways. First, they can be subject to “internal derivation,” in which the stem of the verb itself is modified. Examples include the reduplication of syllables, consonant doubling, or the addition of the infix /-a-/ inside the stem to mark plurality of action. Second, Chadic verbs can be modified by “external derivation,” in which extensions are added to the verb stem to mark the location or direction of the action—“here” versus “there,” for example, or “upward” versus “downward.” These derivations often add a perfective aspect reading to the verb, which indicates that the action has already been completed (or is conceived of as having been completed).

      In some instances, multiple derivative extensions may combine to express multiple pieces of information about the verb. Some languages make the extensions part of the verb morphology, making them integral parts of the word when used as suffixes. An example from Lamang (Central Chadic) is là-ŋà-ná-b-l-ì ‘I have brought him out of.' This phrase consists of the following components: là (verb root ‘go') + ŋà (extension 1, causative) + (object pronoun, 3rd person singular) + b (extension 2, action, ‘out') + l (reduplicated verb root ‘go') + ì (subject pronoun, 1st person singular).

      Other languages keep the extensions separated from the verb stem, leaving them as detached particles. The conjugation systems used to mark the mood, aspect, and tense of the verb tend to be organized in three or, less commonly, two divisions. In such systems a nonmarked member (i.e., “neutral” or “aorist”) contrasts with two marked members, the “perfective” and “imperfective.” The imperfective verb stem is often identifiable as a participial form, or “verbal noun.” These characteristics are illustrated in the following examples from Hausa: in shíi nèe múkà gáníi ‘it is him we saw,' the -kà in mú-kà represents the marked perfective; in shíi nèe múkèe sóò ‘it is him we want,' the -kèe in mú-kèe represents the marked imperfective; and in the contrasting múnàa sóò mù tàfí yànzú ‘we want to go now' (literally ‘we want we go now'), the 1st person plural subject pronoun in the subordinate second clause is not followed by any aspect marker at all.

      Although the most likely original word order was verb–subject–object (VSO), the predominant word order in today's Chadic languages is subject–verb–object. Consequently, subject pronouns tend to precede the verb stem. Those Central Chadic languages that have retained VSO order have suffixed subject pronouns or allow both prefixed and suffixed subject pronouns.

H. Ekkehard Wolff

Additional Reading
A compact introductory survey on Chadic as a whole is Russell G. Schuh, “Chadic Overview,” in M. Lionel Bender, Gábor Takács, and David L. Appleyard (eds.), Selected Comparative-Historical Afrasian Linguistic Studies (2003), pp. 55–60.A recent update of the Chadic subclassification can be found in Paul Newman, “Hausa and the Chadic Languages,” in Bernard Comrie (ed.), The World's Major Languages (1987), pp. 705–723. Concise sketches of individual languages include C. Gouffé, “Hausa,” pp. 415–428; Herrmann Jungraithmayr, “Ron,” pp. 429–433; Ekkehard Wolff, “Lamang,” pp. 435–441; and Jacques Fédry, “Dangaléat,” pp. 443–454, in G. Manessy (ed.), Les Langues de l'Afrique Subsaharienne (1981). Chadic roots and their geographic distribution are the focus of Herrmann Jungraithmayr and Dymitr Ibriszimow, Chadic Lexical Roots, 2 vol. (1994).There are a number of fairly comprehensive monographic descriptions for individual languages of the major subdivisions of Chadic. Monographs about West Chadic languages other than Hausa include Russell G. Schuh, A Grammar of Miya (1998); Zygmunt Frajzyngier, A Grammar of Mupun (1993), and A Grammar of Pero (1989); and Paul Newman, The Kanakuru Language (1974). Comprehensive descriptive works concerning Central Chadic languages include Ekkehard Wolff, A Grammar of the Lamang Language (1983); and Carl Hoffmann, A Grammar of the Margi Language (1963).Much of the scholarship on Chadic languages has been published in languages other than English. Key works include Elhadji Ari Awagana, Grammatik des Buduma (2001); Daniel Barreteau, Description du mofu-gudur, 2 vol. (1988); Henry Tourneaux, Le Mulwi ou vulum de Mogroum, (Tchad) (1978); and Karen Ebert, Sprache und Tradition der Kera (Tschad), 3 vol. (1975, 1976, and 1979).

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