Calvo Doctrine

      a body of international rules regulating the jurisdiction of governments over aliens and the scope of their protection by their home states, as well as the use of force in collecting indemnities.

      The doctrine was advanced by the Argentine diplomat and legal scholar Carlos Calvo, in his International Law of Europe and America in Theory and Practice (1868). It affirmed that rules governing the jurisdiction of a country over aliens and the collection of indemnities should apply equally to all nations, regardless of size. It further stated that foreigners who held property in Latin American (Latin America, history of) states and who had claims against the governments of such states should apply to the courts within such nations for redress instead of seeking diplomatic intervention. Moreover, according to the doctrine, nations were not entitled to use armed force to collect debts owed them by other nations. A Calvo clause in a contract between the government of a Latin American state and an alien stipulates that the latter agrees unconditionally to the adjudication within the state concerned of any dispute between the contracting parties.

      The Calvo Doctrine was essentially restated by the Drago Doctrine, articulated by the Argentine foreign minister Luis María Drago (Drago, Luis María) in 1902. Venezuela then was indebted to Great Britain, Germany, and Italy, which threatened armed intervention to collect. Drago advised the United States government that “The public debt cannot occasion armed intervention nor even the actual occupation of the territory of American nations.” This statement against European intervention in the Americas squared with U.S. policy, as set forth in the Monroe Doctrine (1823) and the Roosevelt Corollary (1904); the U.S. government assented to the modified Drago version at the second Hague Peace Conference (1907) in the form adopted as the Porter Convention on the Limitation of the Employment of Force for the Recovery of Contract Debts. Although the United States opposed European intervention in the Americas, it reserved for itself the right, frequently used, to intervene with armed force in any Latin-American state where conditions seemed to menace U.S. interests.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Calvo doctrine — The principle set forth by an Argentine jurist, Carlos Calvo, that a government has no duty to compensate aliens for losses or injuries that they incur as a result of domestic disturbances or a civil war, in cases where the state is not at fault …   Law dictionary

  • Calvo Doctrine — The Calvo Doctrine is a foreign policy doctrine which holds that jurisdiction in international investment disputes lies with the country in which the investment is located. The Calvo Doctrine thus proposed to prohibit diplomatic protection or… …   Wikipedia

  • Calvo Doctrine — The doctrine stated by the Argentine jurist, Carlos Calvo, that a government is not bound to indemnify aliens for losses or injuries sustained by them in consequence of domestic disturbances or civil war, where the state is not at fault, and that …   Black's law dictionary

  • Calvo — is a Spanish or Italian surname, meaning bald, which was first used during the Middle Ages. It may refer to:People*A.D. Calvo, Argentine film producer *Adrianne Calvo, American chef *Alex Calvo García, Spanish football player *Agustín García… …   Wikipedia

  • Doctrine Drago — La doctrine Drago, énoncée en 1902 par le ministre des affaires étrangères argentin Luis María Drago, est une extension de la doctrine Monroe qui affirme qu aucun pouvoir étranger, y compris les États Unis, ne peut utiliser la force contre les… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Doctrine Calvo — La Doctrine Calvo, du nom de son auteur, Carlos Calvo, est une doctrine du droit international qui stipule que les personnes vivant dans un pays étranger doivent faire leurs demandes, des plaintes et des griefs dans le cadre de la compétence des… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Doctrine stratégique — Liste des doctrines géopolitiques Les doctrines géopolitiques ont été utilisées dans les relations internationales pour affirmer la politique extérieure des nations sur la scène mondiale. Sommaire 1 Liste par ordre chronologique 1.1 Doctrines… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Drago Doctrine — The Drago Doctrine was announced in 1902 by the Argentine Minister of Foreign Affairs Luis María Drago. Extending the Monroe Doctrine, it set forth the policy that no foreign power, including the United States, could use force against an American …   Wikipedia

  • Drago doctrine — The principle asserted by Luis Drago, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Argentine Republic, in a letter to the Argentine Minister at Washington, December 29, 1902, that the forcible intervention of states to secure the payment of public debts… …   Black's law dictionary

  • Carlos Calvo — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Carlos Calvo (homonymie). Carlos Calvo Carlos Calvo ( …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.