Byrnes, James F.
▪ American juristin full James Francis Byrnesborn May 2, 1879, Charleston, S.C., U.S.died April 9, 1972, Columbia, S.C.Democratic Party politician and administrator who, during World War II, was popularly known as “assistant president for domestic affairs” in his capacity as U.S. director of war mobilization (1943–45). He also served effectively as secretary of state (1945–47) in the challenging postwar period.A self-taught lawyer, Byrnes entered public life in 1908 as public prosecutor in South Carolina. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1911–25) and in the Senate (1931–41), where he soon emerged as the actual majority leader. A member of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's “Brain Trust,” he helped pilot numerous New Deal measures through Congress. He later rejected many Administration concepts as too radical but was a key figure in launching important defense preparedness legislation on the eve of World War II.After serving briefly on the U.S. Supreme Court (1941–42), Byrnes was appointed director of economic stabilization and later head of the Office of War Mobilization. He was thus vested with authority over production, procurement, and distribution of all civilian and military goods, manpower allocation, and economic stabilization.After attending the Yalta (Big Three) Conference with Roosevelt in February 1945, Byrnes resigned but was recalled to active service by President Harry S. Truman as secretary of state and accompanied Truman to the Potsdam Conference in the same year. His experiences in dealing with the Soviet Union, particularly over the issue of German reunification, soon converted him from an advocate of friendly cooperation to a hard-line fighter in the Cold War. Byrnes called for the United States to maintain a military establishment in western Europe to prevent Soviet expansion there. He resigned from the cabinet in 1947 in a disagreement with Truman.Byrnes served as governor of his state from 1951 to 1955. In later years he defended racial segregation in the schools.
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Byrnes, James — 1879–1972 Byrnes was an important behind the scenes operator in Washington throughout the war. A Supreme court judge, he directed the Selective Service and the Lend Lease Acts through Congress. In 1942 he was made Director of War Mobilization… … Who’s Who in World War Two
Byrnes,James Francis — Byrnes (bûrnz), James Francis. 1879 1972. American politician who served as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1941 1942). As secretary of state (1945 1947) he tried unsuccessfully to ease postwar tensions between the United States… … Universalium
Byrnes, James Francis — (1882 1972) Born in Charleston, South Carolina, James F. Byrnes left school early, lied about his age (claiming to have been born in 1879), and was employed as a court stenographer. He passed the South Carolina bar exam in 1903. Byrnes was… … Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era
James Byrnes — James Francis Byrnes (* 2. Mai 1879 in Charleston; † 9. April 1972 in Columbia, South Carolina) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker (Demokratische Partei. Er war von 1945 … Deutsch Wikipedia
James Francis Byrnes — James Byrnes James Francis Byrnes (* 2. Mai 1879 in Charleston; † 9. April 1972 in Columbia, South Carolina) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker (Demokratische Partei. Er war von 1945 … Deutsch Wikipedia
James F. Byrnes — James Francis Byrnes (* 2. Mai 1882 in Charleston, South Carolina; † 9. April 1972 in Columbia, South Carolina) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker der Demokratischen Partei. Er war von 1945 … Deutsch Wikipedia
BYRNES (J. F.) — BYRNES JAMES FRANCIS (1879 1972) D’origine modeste, James F. Byrnes est élu, en 1910, représentant démocrate de la Caroline du Sud. En 1924, il abandonne la Chambre, se présente sans succès aux élections sénatoriales, mais prend sa revanche en… … Encyclopédie Universelle
James Clark McReynolds — James C. McReynolds James Clark McReynolds (* 3. Februar 1862 in Elkton, Todd County, Kentucky; † 24. August 1946 in Washington D.C.) war ein US amerikanischer Jurist, Politiker, Justizminister (Attorney General) sowie … Deutsch Wikipedia
James F. Byrnes — Infobox Judge name = James F. Byrnes imagesize = caption = office = Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court termstart = July 8 1941 termend = October 3 1942 nominator = Franklin Delano Roosevelt appointer = predecessor = James Clark… … Wikipedia
James F. Byrnes — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Byrnes. James Byrnes James Francis Byrnes (né le 2 mai … Wikipédia en Français