Broadwood, John

▪ British piano maker
born October 1732, Cockburnspath, Berwickshire, Scotland
died 1812, London, England

      British maker of harpsichords and pianos (piano) and founder of the oldest existing firm of piano manufacturers.

      Broadwood, a cabinetmaker, was working for the prominent Swiss-born harpsichord maker Burkat Shudi (Burkhardt Tschudi) in London in 1761. He married Shudi's daughter in 1769 and the following year became his father-in-law's partner in the firm. After Shudi's death in 1773, Broadwood worked with his brother-in-law, taking over the business entirely in 1782. His son James Shudi Broadwood (1772–1851) became a partner in 1795, and the firm remains in the Broadwood family.

      John Broadwood's first piano (1773) was a square instrument modeled after those of Johann Zumpe (Zumpe, Johann Christoph), a German-born pianoforte maker who worked for a time with Shudi and who built the first square pianos. By 1780 Broadwood was making square pianos after an original design. The first known Broadwood grand piano dates from 1781. His grand pianos used added damper and soft pedals resembling those on modern grands. Among many later improvements and patents is the divided bridge (1788), which allows bass and treble strings to affect the soundboard independently; this arrangement became the model for most later grand pianos.

      Other members of the Broadwood family were active musically, particularly Lucy Broadwood (1858–1929), who collected and published English folk songs.

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Universalium. 2010.

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