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# Boltzmann, Ludwig Eduard

▪ Austrian physicist
born Feb. 20, 1844, Vienna, Austria
died Sept. 5, 1906, Duino, Italy

physicist whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the visible properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).

After receiving his doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1866, Boltzmann held professorships in mathematics and physics at Vienna, Graz, Munich, and Leipzig.

In the 1870s Boltzmann published a series of papers in which he showed that the second law of thermodynamics, which concerns energy exchange, could be explained by applying the laws of mechanics and the theory of probability to the motions of the atoms. In so doing, he made clear that the second law is essentially statistical and that a system approaches a state of thermodynamic equilibrium (uniform energy distribution throughout) because equilibrium is overwhelmingly the most probable state of a material system. During these investigations Boltzmann worked out the general law for the distribution of energy among the various parts of a system at a specific temperature and derived the theorem of equipartition of energy ( Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law). This law states that the average amount of energy involved in each different direction of motion of an atom is the same. He derived an equation for the change of the distribution of energy among atoms due to atomic collisions and laid the foundations of statistical mechanics.

Boltzmann was also one of the first continental scientists to recognize the importance of the electromagnetic theory proposed by James Clerk Maxwell of England. Though his work on statistical mechanics was strongly attacked and long-misunderstood, his conclusions were finally supported by the discoveries in atomic physics that began shortly before 1900 and by recognition that fluctuation phenomena, such as Brownian motion (random movement of microscopic particles suspended in a fluid), could be explained only by statistical mechanics.

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Universalium. 2010.

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• Boltzmann, Ludwig (Eduard) — born Feb. 20, 1844, Vienna, Austria died Sept. 5, 1906, Duino, Italy Austrian physicist. He obtained his doctorate from the University of Vienna and thereafter taught at several German and Austrian universities. He was one of the first European… …   Universalium

• Boltzmann, Ludwig (Eduard) — (20 feb. 1844, Viena, Austria–5 sep. 1906, Duino, Italia). Físico austríaco. Obtuvo su doctorado en la Universidad de Viena y de ahí en adelante enseñó en varias universidades alemanas y austríacas. Fue uno de los primeros científicos europeos en …   Enciclopedia Universal

• Ludwig — Ludwig, Emil Ludwig, Karl Friedrich Ludwig, Otto * * * (as used in expressions) Beck, Ludwig Beethoven, Ludwig van Boltzmann, Ludwig (Eduard) Erhard, Ludwig Feuerbach, Ludwig (Andreas) Fraenkel Conrat, Heinz L(udwig) Frege, (Friedrich Ludwig)… …   Enciclopedia Universal

• Ludwig Boltzmann — Boltzmanns Bild in der Dibner Kollektion …   Deutsch Wikipedia

• Boltzmann constant — Physics. the ratio of the universal gas constant to Avogadro s number, equal to 1.3803 × 10 16 erg per degree C. Symbol: k Also, Boltzmann s constant. [1905 10; after L. BOLTZMANN] * * * Ratio of the universal gas constant (see gas laws) to… …   Universalium

• Ludwig — /lud wig, lood vig, wig/; Ger. /looht vikh, loohd /, n. 1. Emil /ay meel/, (Emil Cohn), 1881 1948, German biographer. 2. a male given name: from a Germanic word meaning famous warrior. * * * (as used in expressions) Beck Ludwig Beethoven Ludwig… …   Universalium

• Eduard — (as used in expressions) Bernstein Eduard Bismarck Otto Eduard Leopold prince von Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard Eduard Schnitzer Mörike Eduard Friedrich Shevardnadze Eduard Amvrosiyevich Taaffe Eduard count von * * * …   Universalium

• Eduard — (as used in expressions) Bernstein, Eduard Bismarck, Otto (Eduard Leopold), príncipe von Boltzmann, Ludwig (Eduard) Eduard Schnitzer Mörike, Eduard Friedrich Shevardnadze, Eduard (Ambrósievich) Taaffe, Eduard, conde von …   Enciclopedia Universal

• Ludwig Boltzmann — Naissance 20 février 1844 Vienne ( …   Wikipédia en Français

• Boltzmann (Cratère) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Boltzmann. Boltzmann Localisation Astre Lune Coordonnées 74°  …   Wikipédia en Français

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