Bichat, Marie-François-Xavier

▪ French anatomist and physiologist
born Nov. 11/14, 1771, Thoirette, France
died July 22, 1802, Lyon
 French anatomist and physiologist whose systematic study of human tissues (tissue) helped found the science of histology.

      Bichat studied anatomy and surgery under Marc-Antoine Petit, chief surgeon at the Hôtel Dieu in Lyon. In 1793 he became a pupil, then assistant, of Pierre-Joseph Desault, surgeon and anatomist in Paris. After his teacher's death in 1795, Bichat completed the fourth volume of Desault's Journal de chirurgie, adding a biographical memoir of its author.

      In addition to his observations at the bedsides of patients at the Hôtel Dieu, Bichat studied the postmortem changes induced in various organs by disease. Without knowledge of the cell as the functional unit of living things, he was among the first to visualize the organs of the body as being formed through the differentiation of simple, functional units, or tissues. This view he developed in Traité des membranes (1800; “Treatise on Membranes”). Although Bichat did not use the microscope, he distinguished 21 kinds of tissues that enter into different combinations in forming the organs of the body. His Recherches physiologiques sur la vie et la mort (1800; “Physiological Researches on Life and Death”) was followed by Anatomie générale (1801). He published the first two volumes of Anatomie descriptive in 1801–03, and the third was completed by his pupils after his death. By order of Napoleon his bust, along with that of Desault, was placed in the Hôtel Dieu.

Additional Reading
Bichat's role in early French pathology is discussed in Russell C. Maulitz, Morbid Appearances: The Anatomy of Pathology in the Early Nineteenth Century (1987). Elizabeth Haigh, Xavier Bichat and the Medical Theory of the Eighteeth Century (1984), is also of interest.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BICHAT Marie François Xavier — (1711 1802) (retrato) [véase http://www.iqb.es/diccio/b/bi.htm#bichat]: anatomista y fisiólogo francés conocido por el conducto que lleva su nombre (conducto aracnoideo) Diccionario ilustrado de Términos Médicos.. Alvaro Galiano. 2010 …   Diccionario médico

  • Bichat, (Marie-François-) Xavier — born Nov. 11/14, 1771, Thoirette, Fra. died July 22, 1802, Lyon French anatomist and physiologist. In addition to bedside observations of patients, he conducted autopsies to study the changes disease causes in various organs. With no knowledge of …   Universalium

  • Bichat, (Marie-François-) Xavier — (11/14 nov. 1771, Thoirette, Francia–22 jul. 1802, Lyon). Anatomista y fisiólogo francés. Además de sus observaciones como médico de cabecera, realizó autopsias para estudiar los cambios que causan las enfermedades en diversos órganos. Sin saber… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bichat, Marie François Xavier — ► (1771 1802) Anatomista y fisiólogo francés. Fundó la histología …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • BICHÂT, MARIE FRANÇOIS XAVIER —    an eminent French anatomist and physiologist; physician to the Hôtel Dieu, Paris; one of the first to resolve the structure of the human body into, as Sartor has it, cellular, vascular, and muscular tissues; his great work Anatomie Générale… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Marie Francois Xavier Bichat — Marie François Xavier Bichat Portrait de Xavier Bichat Marie François Xavier Bichat, né le 14 novembre 1771 à Thoirette (Jura) et décédé le 22 juillet 1802 à Paris, est un m …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Marie François Xavier Bichat — Born November 14, 1771(1771 11 14) Thoirette …   Wikipedia

  • Marie François Xavier Bichat — Portrait von Marie François Xavier Bichat Marie François Xavier Bichat (* 11. oder 14. November 1771 in Thoirette; † 22. Juli 1802 in Paris) war ein französischer Anatom sowie Physiologe. Er gilt als Begründer der Histologie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Marie François Xavier Bichat — Xavier Bichat. Portrait par Godefroy Engelmann …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Marie François — may refer to: Auguste Marie François Beernaert (1829 1912), Prime Minister of Belgium Marie François Oscar Bardy de Fourtou (1836 1897), French politician Marie François Sadi Carnot (1837 1894), French statesman Marie François Xavier Bichat (1771 …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.