bet din


bet din

also spelled  beth din (Hebrew: “house of judgment”) , plural  batte din 

      Jewish tribunal empowered to adjudicate cases involving criminal, civil, or religious law. The history of such institutions goes back to the time the 12 tribes of Israel appointed judges and set up courts of law (Deuteronomy 16:18).

      During the period of the Second Temple of Jerusalem (Jerusalem, Temple of) (516 BC–AD 70), three types of batte din operated side by side. The highest court, called Great Bet Din, or sanhedrin, consisted of 71 members and convened on the Temple grounds to legislate and interpret Jewish Law. Its powers included the right to appoint judges for the two types of lower courts; the higher of these was called the Small Sanhedrin, had 23 members, presided over criminal cases, and functioned in virtually every town of 120 or more male inhabitants. The smallest of the batte din had three judges each.

      Historically, the functions and power of batte din varied according to the social and political conditions of the Jewish communities under their jurisdiction. Thus, in Spain, because of its large Jewish population, the king granted the bet din jurisdiction over criminal cases, and in Poland, Jews had recourse to a bet din as a court of last appeal until 1764. Elsewhere the powers of batte din were sometimes restricted to questions of ritual only.

      Batte din still operate throughout the modern world under the direction of rabbinic scholars who adjudicate questions affecting their Jewish communities. In Israel all questions of personal status (e.g., divorce and marriage) are resolved by religious courts. In countries where civil law requires that all divorces be granted by civil courts, Orthodox and Conservative Jews are nonetheless required to obtain a religious divorce before remarriage from either a bet din or a rabbi who is competent to preside over affairs of divorce.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bet Din —   [hebräisch »Gerichtshof«] das, /Ba te Din, Beth Din, Besdin, nach jüdisch rabbinischer Tradition aus mindestens drei Personen unter Vorsitz eines ordinierten rabbinischen Richters (dajjan) bestehendes Ortsgericht; bis zur rechtlichen… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • bet-din — bȅt dȋn m DEFINICIJA bibl. zgrada u kojoj zasjeda sud; sud, sudnica (kod Izraelaca u biblijsko doba) ETIMOLOGIJA hebr. bēyth dīn: kuća zakona …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Bet Din — Beth din Beth Din, aussi écrit Beit Din, est la translitération de l hébreu ,בית דין, qui signifie maison du jugement et désigne un tribunal religieux. La forme la plus connue et la plus répandue est le Beth Din rabbinique (composé de rabbins),… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Bet Din — In diesem Artikel oder Abschnitt fehlen wichtige Informationen. Du kannst Wikipedia helfen, indem du sie recherchierst und einfügst. Beth Din ist hebräisch und bedeutet Gerichtshof. Es ist ein Rabbinatsgericht in der Regel bestehend aus… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • bet din — noun see beth din …   Useful english dictionary

  • BET DIN AND JUDGES — (Heb. בֵּית דִּין; lit. house of judgment ). Bet din (pl. battei din) is the term, in rabbinic sources, for a Jewish court of law. In modern times it usually refers to   an ecclesiastical court dealing with religious matters such as divorce, and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • AV BET DIN — (Heb. אַב בֵּ ית דִּין; father of the law court ), title of (a) one who presided over a Jewish ecclesiastical court (bet din ); the vice president of the Bet Din ha Gadol ( Supreme Court of Justice ) during the Second Temple period. The origin… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ḤEREM BET DIN — (Heb. חֵרֶם בֵּית דִּין, ban of the court ), the shortened and accepted form of ḥerem bet din ha gadol. This was the social and legal concept and takkanah originally prevailing in Western and Central Europe that gave to the court of the local… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HASMONEAN BET DIN — (Heb. בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל חַשְׁמוֹנָאִים); according to a talmudic source (Sanh. 82a; Av. Zar. 36b) the court of the Hasmoneans decreed that an Israelite who had intercourse with a heathen woman is liable to punishment on account of נשג״א (NShGA), a …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • bet — ab·bet·din; al·pha·bet·ic; al·pha·bet·i·cal·ly; al·pha·bet·i·co classed; al·pha·bet·ics; al·pha·bet·i·form; al·pha·bet·ism; al·pha·bet·ist; al·pha·bet·i·za·tion; al·pha·bet·ize; an·al·pha·bet; an·al·pha·bet·ism; bar·bet; bet·a·fite; bet·o·ny;… …   English syllables


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