Bessarion

▪ Byzantine theologian
also called  John Bessarion,   baptismal name  John,  or  Basil,  Latin  Johannes,  or  Basilius 
born Jan. 2, 1403, Trebizond, Trebizond empire [now Trabzon, Turkey]
died Nov. 18, 1472, Ravenna [Italy]

      Byzantine humanist and theologian, later a Roman cardinal, and a major contributor to the revival of letters in the 15th century.

      He was educated at Constantinople (Istanbul) and adopted the name Bessarion upon becoming a monk in the order of St. Basil in 1423. In 1437 he was made archbishop of Nicaea (now Iznik, Turkey) by the Byzantine emperor John VIII Palaeologus. He accompanied John to Italy in order to negotiate a union between the Byzantine and Western churches as a means of mobilizing assistance against the Turks, who had invaded the Balkan Peninsula and threatened Constantinople.

      At the councils held in the Italian cities of Ferrara and Florence, Bessarion supported union, which was unacceptable to others in the Byzantine church. Bessarion, however, remained in communion with Rome and gained the favour of Pope Eugenius IV, who made him a cardinal in 1439. Thereafter, he lived in Italy. At Rome he contributed to the development of the Roman Academy of History and of Archaeology, and, with his former teacher Gemistus Plethon, the celebrated Neoplatonist, he attracted a circle of philosophers devoted to the study of Plato. From 1450 to 1455 he served as papal governor of Bologna and was sent on embassies to various foreign princes, including King Louis XI of France in 1471.

      One of the most learned scholars of his time, Bessarion spread knowledge of Greek language and learning by building a personal library that included a large collection of Greek manuscripts, by his patronage of scholars, and by his writing. He later donated his library to the Senate of Venice. Bessarion was made Latin patriarch of Constantinople in 1463. His most important work is considered to be In calumniatorem Platonis, a treatise defending Plato against the fervid Aristotelianism of George of Trebizond. His attempts to reconcile the two philosophies influenced Italian philosophy, which assimilated the Byzantine philosophical tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BESSARION (J.) — BESSARION JEAN cardinal (1403 1472) Issu d’une très modeste famille de Trébizonde, alors capitale des grands Comnènes. Bessarion étudie à Constantinople, où il compte parmi ses maîtres le médecin et astronome Chrysokokkès, et se fait des amis,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bessarion — ist der Name folgender Personen: Basilius Bessarion (1403–1472), byzantinischer Humanist und Kardinal Bessarion der Große (4./5. Jahrhundert), ägyptischer Anachoret und Heiliger Bessarion Lominadse (1897–1935), russischer Politiker Siehe auch:… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bessarion — Bessarion,   Taufname unbekannt, byzantinischer Theologe und Humanist, * Trapezunt (heute Trabzon) 2. 1. 1403 (?), ✝ Ravenna 18. 11. 1472; Kardinal (seit 1439) und lateinischer Patriarch von Konstantinopel (seit 1463). Bessarion förderte die… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Bessarĭon — (Basilius od. Johannes), geb. 1395 in Trapezunt; ging um 1410 nach Constantinopel, trat 1423 in den Orden des St. Basilius u. nahm hier den Namen B. an. Er setzte seine Studien in Morea bei Gemistos Pletho fort u. ward bald als Homilet berühmt.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Bessarĭon — Bessarĭon, Basilius (oder Johannes), Humanist, geb. 1403 in Trapezunt, gest. 19. Nov. 1472 in Ravenna, wurde in Konstantinopel gebildet, trat 1423 in den Orden des Basilius, war nun Schüler des Gemistos Pletho, wurde 1437 Erzbischof von Nikäa,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bessarion — Bessarĭon, Johannes oder Basilius, Humanist, geb. 1395 oder 1403 zu Trapezunt, 1437 Erzbischof zu Nicäa, wirkte auf dem Konzil zu Florenz (1439) für eine Union der griech. Kirche mit der römischen, trat dann zu dieser über, 1440 röm. Kardinal,… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bessarion — Bessarion, Johann oder Basilius, geb. 1395 zu Trapezunt in Kleinasien, studierte in Constantinopel, wurde 1423 Basilianermönch mit dem Klosternamen B., 1437 Erzbischof von Nicäa, wirkte auf dem Concil von Ferrara u. Florenz 1438 u. 39 für die… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Bessarion — Bessarion, Juan …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bessarion — (Jean) (v. 1400 1472) théologien et humaniste byzantin. Il tenta de réconcilier les églises grecque et romaine aux deux conciles de 1439 …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • BESSARION — Trapezuntius, Georgii Themistii Plethonis discipulus, Cardinalis doctissimus, quod oratio eius in Concilio Ferrariensi postea Florentiam transsato, de Graecae Ecclesiae cum Romana unione, et scripta, de quibus post, satis superque testantur, sub… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Bessarion — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Bessarion est un nom propre qui peut désigner : Sommaire 1 Variante 2 Saint catholique et orthodoxe …   Wikipédia en Français

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