Beneden, Edouard van

▪ Belgian scientist
in full  Edouard-Joseph-Louis-Marie van Beneden 
born , March 5, 1846, Leuven, Belg.
died April 28, 1910, Liège

      Belgian embryologist and cytologist best known for his discoveries concerning fertilization and chromosome numbers in sex cells and body cells.

      During his early years, van Beneden (Beneden, Pierre-Joseph van) worked with his father, P.J. van Beneden, a professor of zoology at the Catholic University in Leuven (Louvain), who was noted for his studies on protozoans, nematodes, and various other animal groups. The younger van Beneden extended this research to dicyemids, a group of wormlike organisms distinguished by their production of two types of embryo. In 1870 he was appointed to the faculty of the University of Liège, where he focused his research on comparative morphology. His work, for example, advanced the theory of the Russian zoologist Aleksandr O. Kovalevsky that marine organisms called tunicates (tunicate) were chordates. Van Beneden established the tunicates' phylogenetic relationship to other animals through an investigation of the segmentation of the embryo.

      From 1883 van Beneden published a series of important papers on the egg of Ascaris megalocephala, an intestinal worm found in horses. In these studies he showed that fertilization consisted essentially in the union of two half-nuclei—one male (from the sperm cell) and one female (from the egg cell)—each containing only half the number of chromosomes found in the body cells of the species. This union produced a cell containing the full number of chromosomes. Van Beneden revealed the individuality of single chromosomes in his study of a subspecies of Ascaris (A. megalocephala univalens) having only two chromosomes in its body cells. He further demonstrated that the chromosome number is constant for every body cell of a species. He also developed a theory of embryo formation in mammals that later became a standard scientific principle.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Edouard Van Beneden — Édouard van Beneden Pour les articles homonymes, voir Van Beneden. Édouard van Beneden Édouard Joseph Louis Marie van Beneden, né à Louvain le 5 mars 1846 et mort à …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Édouard van Beneden — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Van Beneden. Édouard van Beneden Édouard Joseph Louis Marie van Beneden, né à Louvain le 5 mars 1846 et mort à Liège le 28 avril …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Édouard van Beneden — Statue Édouard van Benedens v …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edouard Van Beneden — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Edouard Van Beneden Édouard Joseph Louis Marie Van Beneden (1846 1910) fue un biólogo belga nacido en …   Wikipedia Español

  • Edouard Van Beneden — Infobox Scientist name = PAGENAME box width = image width =150px caption = PAGENAME birth date = 5 March, 1846 birth place = Leuven death date = 28 April, 1910 death place = Liège residence = citizenship = nationality = Belgian ethnicity = field …   Wikipedia

  • Quai Édouard van Beneden — Le quai van Beneden et l Institut de Zoologie de l Université de Liège Le quai Édouard van Beneden est une artère liégeoise, sur la rive droite de la Meuse, qui relie le boulevard Saucy et la passerelle Saucy au quai Churchill et au pont Kennedy …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Edouard — Édouard ist ein französischer männlicher Vorname. Im deutschen Sprachraum erscheint er als Eduard. Bekannte Namensträger sind: Jean Édouard Adam Jacques Édouard Alexis Édouard André Édouard François André Édouard d’Anglemont Jules Léopold Édouard …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Beneden — ist der Name von Édouard van Beneden (1846–1910), belgischer Cytologe, Sohn von Pierre Joseph van Beneden Pierre Joseph van Beneden (1809–1894) belgischer Parasitologe und Paläontologe Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Édouard — oder Edouard ist ein männlicher Vorname. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Bekannte Namensträger 2.1 Vorname 2.2 Zwischenname …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Van Beneden — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Pierre Joseph van Beneden (1809 1894), paléontologiste et zoologiste belge, spécialisé en parasitologie. Édouard van Beneden (1846 1910), zoologiste et… …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.