Beauvoir, Simone de

▪ French writer
in full  Simone Lucie-Ernestine-Marie-Bertrand de Beauvoir 
born Jan. 9, 1908, Paris, France
died April 14, 1986, Paris
 French writer and feminist (women's movement), a member of the intellectual fellowship of philosopher-writers who have given a literary transcription to the themes of Existentialism. She is known primarily for her treatise Le Deuxième Sexe, 2 vol. (1949; The Second Sex), a scholarly and passionate plea for the abolition of what she called the myth of the “eternal feminine.” This seminal work became a classic of feminist literature.

      Schooled in private institutions, de Beauvoir attended the Sorbonne, where, in 1929, she passed her agrégation in philosophy and met Jean-Paul Sartre (Sartre, Jean-Paul), beginning a lifelong association with him. She taught at a number of schools (1931–43) before turning to writing for her livelihood. In 1945 she and Sartre founded and began editing Le Temps modernes, a monthly review.

      Her novels expound the major Existential themes, demonstrating her conception of the writer's commitment to the times. L'Invitée (1943; She Came To Stay) describes the subtle destruction of a couple's relationship brought about by a young girl's prolonged stay in their home; it also treats the difficult problem of the relationship of a conscience to “the other,” each individual conscience being fundamentally a predator to another. Of her other works of fiction, perhaps the best known is Les Mandarins (1954; The Mandarins), for which she won the Prix Goncourt. It is a chronicle of the attempts of post-World War II intellectuals to leave their “mandarin” (educated elite) status and engage in political activism. She also wrote four books of philosophy, including Pour une Morale de l'ambiguité (1947; The Ethics of Ambiguity); travel books on China (La Longue Marche: essai sur la Chine [1957]; The Long March) and the United States (L'Amérique au jour de jour [1948]; America Day by Day); and a number of essays, some of them book-length, the best known of which is The Second Sex.

      Several volumes of her work are devoted to autobiography. These include Mémoires d'une jeune fille rangée (1958; Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter), La Force de l'âge (1960; The Prime of Life), La Force des choses (1963; Force of Circumstance), and Tout compte fait (1972; All Said and Done). This body of work, beyond its personal interest, constitutes a clear and telling portrait of French intellectual life from the 1930s to the 1970s.

      In addition to treating feminist issues, de Beauvoir was concerned with the issue of aging, which she addressed in Une Mort très douce (1964; A Very Easy Death), on her mother's death in a hospital, and in La Vieillesse (1970; Old Age), a bitter reflection on society's indifference to the elderly. In 1981 she wrote La Cérémonie des adieux (Adieux: A Farewell to Sartre), a painful account of Sartre's last years. Simone de Beauvoir: A Biography, by Deirdre Bair, appeared in 1990.

      Simone de Beauvoir revealed herself as a woman of formidable courage and integrity, whose life supported her thesis: the basic options of an individual must be made on the premises of an equal vocation for man and woman founded on a common structure of their being, independent of their sexuality.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Beauvoir, Simone de — (1908–1986) French feminist philosopher and novelist. Born in Paris, de Beauvoir studied at the Sorbonne, and became famous when she wrote the classic study of women s oppression Le Deuxième Sexe (1949, trs. as The Second Sex, 1953). This is the… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Beauvoir,Simone de — Beau·voir (bō vwärʹ), Simone de. 1908 1986. French writer, existentialist, and feminist whose works include The Second Sex (1949) and The Coming of Age (1970), a study of how different cultures view old age. * * * …   Universalium

  • Beauvoir, Simone de — ► (1908 86) Escritora francesa. Se dio a conocer con La invitada (1943), en la que planteó el problema de la libertad. Los mandarines (1954), premio Goncourt, recreó el ambiente intelectual de la posguerra. Sus obras autobiográficas Memorias de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Beauvoir, Simone (Lucie-Ernestine-Marie-Bertrand) de — (9 ene. 1908, París, Francia–14 abr. 1986, París). Escritora y feminista francesa. Mientras estudiaba en la Sorbona, conoció a Jean Paul Sartre, con quien inició una relación intelectual y romántica de toda la vida. Es conocida principalmente por …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Beauvoir, Simone (Lucie-Ernestine-Marie-Bertrand) de — born Jan. 9, 1908, Paris, France died April 14, 1986, Paris French writer and feminist. As a student at the Sorbonne, she met Jean Paul Sartre, with whom she formed a lifelong intellectual and romantic bond. She is known primarily for her… …   Universalium

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  • de Beauvoir, Simone — (1908 86) A Parisian born philosopher and novelist who graduated from the élite École Normale Supérieure. She is most celebrated for her two volume The Second Sex (1949) which has been grossly translated and truncated in its English language… …   Dictionary of sociology

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