town, capital of Bauchi state and traditional emirate, northeastern Nigeria. Bauchi town lies on the railroad from Maiduguri to Kafanchan (where it joins the line to Port Harcourt) and has road connections to Jos, Kano, and Maiduguri and to such state population centres as Gombe and Deba Habe. The emirate was founded (1800–10) by Yakubu, one of Sheikh Usman dan Fodio's commanders. Yakubu conquered a sparsely wooded savanna region (the Bauchi High Plains) mainly inhabited by non-Muslim peoples. After successful campaigns he founded (1809) the town of Bauchi. Yakubu built the town's walls, the circumference of which measures 6.5 miles (10.5 km).

      Several of the subject peoples successfully revolted under the rule of his son and successor, Emir Ibrahim ibn Yakubu. Emir Usman moved the capital to Rauta (35 miles northwest) in 1877; but Bauchi once again became the emirate headquarters when, in 1902, the British occupied the town and deposed Emir Umaru. The town served as the provincial capital from 1904 until 1911 and again from 1917 to 1924. In 1926 it became the headquarters of Bauchi province, and in 1976 capital of the newly created Bauchi state.

      With the coming of the railway in 1961, Bauchi grew as a collecting point for peanuts (groundnuts) and cotton and a trade centre in sorghum, millet, cowpeas, corn (maize), cassava, and vegetables and in cattle, goats, and sheep. Cotton weaving and dyeing, tanning, and blacksmithing are traditional activities. The town's industry includes an asbestos factory, a meat-products processing plant and cannery, and one of the first Nigerian assembly plants for commercial vehicles and trucks. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (1988) and a federal polytechnic college are in the town. Pop. (2006) local government area, 493,810.

      state, northeastern Nigeria. Before 1976 it was a province in former North-Eastern state. Bauchi is bounded by the states of Jigawa and Kano on the northwest; Kaduna on the west; Plateau, Taraba, and Gombe on the south; and Yobe on the east. The highlands in the southwestern part of the state are an extension of the Jos Plateau. The Gongola River, rising in the Jos Plateau, flows to the northeast, then turns southward (loosely tracing the southern half of the state's eastern boundary) to merge with the Benue River in Adamawa state. Bauchi state is inhabited by a large number of ethnic groups, including the Tangale, Waja (Wajawa), Fulani, and Hausa. The state also contains a number of traditional Muslim emirates. According to tradition, it was named for a hunter known as Baushe, who settled in the region before the arrival of Yakubu, the first traditional ruler of Bauchi emirate (founded 1800–10).

      Agriculture dominates the economy, and millet, sorghum, corn (maize), yams, rice, cassava (manioc), tomatoes, and vegetables are produced. Bauchi is one of the country's main cotton-producing states; coffee and peanuts (groundnuts) are the other cash crops. Cattle, goats, and sheep are raised. From the mid-1970s irrigation schemes have greatly increased production. Alluvial tin and columbite mining provide minerals for export; cassiterite, coal, limestone, iron ore, antimony, and marble are abundant mineral resources. Cotton weaving and dyeing, tanning, and blacksmithing are traditional activities. The state's industries include meat-products processing and canning, peanut processing, vegetable-oil milling, and cotton ginning. There is also an assembly plant for commercial vehicles and trucks and a cement factory. Bauchi town, the state capital, is an important collecting and shipping centre on the railway from Maiduguri to Kafanchan and is also a major road hub in the state. Yankari National Park (q.v.), with a hot spring at Wikki, is a major tourist attraction. Area 17,698 square miles (45,837 square km). Pop. (2006) 4,676,465.

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Universalium. 2010.

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