Arnold, Henry Harley

▪ United States general
byname  Hap Arnold  
born June 25, 1886, Gladwyne, Pennsylvania, U.S.
died January 15, 1950, Sonoma, California
 air strategist, commanding general of the U.S. Army Air Forces (United States Air Force, The) in World War II.

      After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1907, Arnold served in the infantry and then transferred to the aeronautical section of the Signal Corps, receiving his flying instruction in 1911 from Orville Wright (Wright, Wilbur and Orville). During World War I he rose from captain to colonel and was eventually the executive officer to the chief of the air service. In the decade of demobilization and disarmament after the war, he was one of the apostles of strategic air power, following the lead of General William (“Billy”) Mitchell (Mitchell, William). In 1931 he was appointed commanding officer at March Field, California, where he worked on the organization and tactics that were to be employed in World War II.

      Arnold reported to Washington, D.C., in 1936 as assistant chief of the Army Air Corps. When his superior, General Oscar Westover, was killed in a plane crash in 1938, Arnold succeeded him as chief. Anticipating the coming global conflict, Arnold strongly pressed for increased Air Corps appropriations and aid to the Allies, despite the hostility of isolationists and shortsighted officers in the military. In 1941 he published, in collaboration with Colonel (later General) Ira C. Eaker, a book entitled Winged Warfare.

      During World War II, Arnold commanded the U.S. Army Air Forces throughout the world. He also served as air representative on the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff and on the Anglo-American Combined Chiefs of Staff. In these capacities he was an influential architect of the plans and strategy that resulted in Allied victory. In December 1944 he was one of four army leaders promoted to the five-star rank of general of the army. He retired from service in 1946, and in 1949 his title was changed to general of the air force; he was the only air commander ever to attain the rank of five stars.

      Arnold had long planned and advocated that the air forces should have parity with the army and navy in the American military establishment. The creation of the National Defense Act of 1947, which authorized this organization, was undoubtedly due in no small measure to Arnold's effort and influence. His autobiography, Global Mission (1949), includes a history of American military aviation.

Additional Reading
Biographical material can be found in the companion volumes by DeWitt S. Copp, A Few Great Captains (1980), and Forged in Fire (1982). Thomas M. Coffey, HAP: The Story of the U.S. Air Force and the Man Who Built It, General Henry H. “Hap” Arnold (1982), is a full-length biography.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Arnold, Henry (Harley) — known as Hap Arnold born June 25, 1886, Gladwyne, Pa., U.S. died Jan. 15, 1950, Sonoma, Calif. U.S. air force officer. He attended West Point and initially served in the infantry. Volunteering as a flyer, he received instruction from Orville… …   Universalium

  • Arnold, Henry (Harley) — llamado Hap Arnold (25 jun. 1886, Gladwyne, Pa., EE.UU.–15 ene. 1950, Sonoma, Cal.). Oficial de aviación estadounidense. Estudió en la academia militar West Point y sirvió inicialmente en la infantería. Se ofreció como piloto voluntario y recibió …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Henry Harley Arnold — dit Hap, né le 25 juin 1886 à Gladwyne en Pennsylvanie, mort le 15 janvier 1950 à Sonoma en Californie, était un général américain qui fut successivement élevé au grade de Général d Armée puis Général d Armée de l Air. Pionnier de l aviation aux… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Henry Harley Arnold — Henry Harley „Hap“ Arnold (* 25. Juni 1886 in Gladwyne, Pennsylvania; † 15. Januar 1950 in Sonoma, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer General of the Air Force und war bei der Operation Doolittle Raid im Pazifikkrieg beteiligt.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Henry Hartley Arnold — Henry Harley „Hap“ Arnold (* 25. Juni 1886 in Gladwyne, Pennsylvania; † 15. Januar 1950 in Sonoma, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer General of the Air Force und war bei der Operation Doolittle Raid im Pazifikkrieg beteiligt.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Henry Arnold — Henry Harley Arnold Henry Harley Arnold Henry Harley Arnold dit Hap, né le 25 juin 1886 à Gladwyne en Pensylvanie, mort le 15 janvier 1950 à Sonoma en Californie, fut le chef d état major de l USAAC à partir de 1938, puis celui de l USAAF d …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Harley (Begriffsklärung) — Harley ist sowohl ein Vor als auch Familienname oder eine Bezeichnung: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Familienname 2 Vorname 3 Firmen 4 Sonstiges // …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Arnold — Arnold, Benedict Arnold, Gottfried Arnold, Matthew Arnold, Thomas * * * (as used in expressions) Arnold, Benedict Arnold, Henry (Harley) Hap Arnold Arnold, Matthew Arnold, Thomas doctor Arnold Bax, Sir Arnold (Edwar …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Arnold — /ahr nld/, n. 1. Benedict, 1741 1801, American general in the Revolutionary War who became a traitor. 2. Sir Edwin, 1832 1904, English poet and journalist. 3. Henry H. ( Hap ), 1886 1950, U.S. general. 4. Matthew, 1822 88, English essayist, poet …   Universalium

  • henry — /hen ree/, n., pl. henries, henrys. Elect. the SI unit of inductance, formally defined to be the inductance of a closed circuit in which an electromotive force of one volt is produced when the electric current in the circuit varies uniformly at a …   Universalium

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