Arīsh, Al-ʿ

Egypt
also spelled  El-Arish,  

      town and largest settlement of the Sinai Peninsula in the northeastern section, on the Mediterranean coast, the capital of Egypt's Shamāl Sīnāʾ (Northern Sinai) muḥāfaẓah (governorate). It was under Israeli military administration from 1967 to 1979, when it returned to Egyptian rule. It is near the mouth of the Wadi al-ʿArīsh, which is the longest seasonal watercourse of the Sinai (Sinai Peninsula).

      Known as Rhinocorura (or Rhinocolura) to classical authors, the town is mentioned from at least the 2nd century BC. The Roman general Titus prepared his invasion of Judaea there (1st century AD). Later, Baldwin I, crusader king of Jerusalem, died there while returning from an Egyptian expedition (1118). It was prosperous as a Muslim trade centre in the European Middle Ages. Taken by Napoleon during his unsuccessful Palestine campaign (1799), Al-ʿArīsh was the site of the signing of an abortive treaty providing for the French evacuation of Egypt.

      In the early 20th century Al-ʿArīsh and its environs were proposed as a site for Zionist colonization near, but not in, Palestine; the scheme was vetoed by Lord Cromer, British administrator of Egypt (1902). In 1906, when the administrative boundary between Egypt and Ottoman dominions proper was demarcated from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Aqaba, Al-ʿArīsh was placed definitively in Egypt. The town was formerly a station on the trans-Sinai railway, built by Britain in World War I; after 1967, however, Israel destroyed the line from Al-ʿArīsh to the Suez Canal for security reasons.

      The local economy is based on agriculture (date palms, castor beans), fishing, and quail trapping; there is a small castor-oil-producing plant. Commercial fishing in Lake al-Bardawīl began in the late 1970s. Coal deposits just to the south of the town are used to fuel an electric-power plant that was started in the early 1980s. The governorate's offices are headquartered there, and the town has become a transfer point for materials passing between Egypt and Israel overland. Tourist facilities were opened in 1980 as well. Al-ʿArīsh is linked by highway to the Suez Canal zone and Israel. It also has an airfield. Pop. (1996) 100,447.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Arish — or el Arīsh ( ar. العريش) is the capital and largest city (with 114,900 inhabitants as of 2002) of the Egyptian governorate of Shamal Sina , lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, 344 kilometers (214 miles) northeast of Cairo.… …   Wikipedia

  • Arish — Original name in latin Arish Name in other language AAC, Al Arish, Al ‘Arsh, Arish, City of Cut Noses, El Arish, El ‘Arsh, Rhinocolorum, Rhinocolura, Rhinocorura, Rhinokorura State code EG Continent/City Africa/Cairo longitude 31.13159 latitude… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Arish — Construction en arish au fort de Nizwa, (Oman) L arish (ou batasti) est un matériau de construction à base de frondes de palmier (palmier dattier ou cocotier) utilisé dans la péninsule arabique. C est un matériau léger bien adapté au clim …   Wikipédia en Français

  • arish — Arrish Ar rish, n. [See {Eddish}.] The stubble of wheat or grass; a stubble field; eddish. [Eng.] [Written also {arish}, {ersh}, etc.] [1913 Webster] The moment we entered the stubble or arrish. Blackw. Mag. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • arish — aris, arish see arr …   Useful english dictionary

  • EL-ARISH — (Ar. اﻟﻌﺮﺶ, al ʿ Arīsh), town on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai Peninsula, near where Wadi al ʿArīsh (the biblical Naḥal Miẓrayim: see brook of egypt ) reaches the sea. It was Sinai s principal center through most historic periods due to a… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Siege of El Arish — In the Siege of Al Arish French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Ottoman forces in the fortress in an eleven day siege. It fell on February 19, 1799. Forces*French: 2,160 under General Jean Reynier. *Turkish: 15,500 soldiers in fort and… …   Wikipedia

  • El Arish — Coordenadas: 31°04′N 33°50′E / 31.067, 33.833 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Convention d'El Arish — Bataille d Héliopolis Bataille d Héliopolis Informations générales Date 20 mars 1800 Lieu Héliopolis Issue Victoire française …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Aeropuerto Internacional de El Arish — Coordenadas: 31°04′24″N 033°50′09″E / 31.07333, 33.83583 …   Wikipedia Español

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