African swine fever

also called  warthog fever  

      highly contagious and usually fatal viral disease of swine that is characterized by high fever, lesions, leukopenia (abnormally low count of white blood cells), elevated pulse and respiration rate, and death within four to seven days after the onset of fever.

      The virus responsible for African swine fever is classified as an iridovirus. It is physically, chemically, and antigenically distinct from the togavirus that causes hog cholera (swine fever). African swine fever virus can survive heat, putrefaction, smoking, partial cooking, and dryness and lives up to six months in chilled carcasses. The incubation period is from 5 to 15 days.

      The disease was first identified in 1910 in Kenya, where it was noted in domestic swine after contact with forest pigs and warthogs. It was confined to certain parts of Africa until 1957, when the disease spread—perhaps by means of processed pork products—to Portugal and then to Spain, Italy, Brazil, and other countries. During the 1970s, African swine fever spread to South America and certain Caribbean islands, but rigorous eradication programs have controlled the disease in the Caribbean area.

      African swine fever is difficult to distinguish from acute classical hog cholera. Both diseases produce high fevers that last for about four or five days. Once the fever has subsided, however, African swine fever virus characteristically causes death within two days (as opposed to seven days for hog cholera). Although immunization has been effective in the prevention of hog cholera, no immunization measures have been shown to be effective in the prevention of African swine fever, nor is there any effective treatment of the disease. The prohibition of pigs and pig products from countries in which the disease exists has prevented its further spread.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • African swine fever — n an acute highly contagious usu. fatal febrile disease that affects only swine (family Suidae), that resembles but is more severe than hog cholera, that is indigenous to Africa where wild swine (as the warthog and bushpig) act as natural… …   Medical dictionary

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  • african swine fever — noun Usage: usually capitalized A : an acute highly contagious usually fatal virus disease of swine that is caused by a spherical virus containing one linear double stranded molecule of DNA, that resembles but is more severe than hog cholera,… …   Useful english dictionary

  • African swine fever virus — Taxobox color = violet name = African swine fever virus image caption = Electron micrograph of a virus particle virus group = i familia = Asfarviridae genus = Asfivirus species = African swine fever virus African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the… …   Wikipedia

  • African swine fever virus — a double stranded DNA virus that is the etiological agent of African swine fever; it was formerly classified as a member of the Iridoviridae but is now assigned to the genus African swine fever–like viruses, which belongs to no family and of… …   Medical dictionary

  • swine fever — n 1) HOG CHOLERA 2) african swine fever * * * hog cholera …   Medical dictionary

  • swine fever — noun Date: 1886 1. hog cholera 2. an acute highly contagious usually fatal disease of swine that is caused by a double stranded DNA virus (species African swine fever virus of the genus Asfivirus, family Asfarviridae), that resembles but is more… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Classical swine fever — Virus classification Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA) Family: Flaviviridae Genus …   Wikipedia

  • Fever — Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degrees F. (37 degrees C.), in practice a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 degrees F (38 degrees C.).… …   Medical dictionary

  • Africanswine fever — African swine fever n. See hog cholera. * * * …   Universalium

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