ABO blood group system

 method of classifying human blood on the basis of the inherited properties of red blood cells (erythrocyte) (erythrocytes (erythrocyte)) as determined by their possession or lack of the antigens (antigen) A and B, which are carried on the surface of the red cells. Persons may thus have type A, type B, type O, or type AB blood. The A, B, and O blood groups were first identified by Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner (Landsteiner, Karl) in 1901. See blood group.

       ABO and Rh groups in transfusionBlood containing red cells with type A antigen on their surface has in its serum (fluid) antibodies (antibody) against type B red cells. If, in transfusion (blood transfusion), type B blood is injected into persons with type A blood, the red cells in the injected blood will be destroyed by the antibodies in the recipient's blood. In the same way, type A red cells will be destroyed by anti-A antibodies in type B blood. Type O blood can be injected into persons with type A, B, or O blood unless there is incompatibility with respect to some other blood group system also present. Persons with type AB blood can receive type A, B, or O blood, as shown in the table (ABO and Rh groups in transfusion).

      Blood group O is the most common blood type throughout the world, particularly among peoples of South and Central America. Type B is prevalent in Asia, especially in northern India. Type A also is common all over the world; the highest frequency is among the Blackfoot Indians of Montana and in the Sami people of northern Scandinavia.

      The ABO antigens are developed well before birth and remain throughout life. Children acquire ABO antibodies passively from their mother before birth, but by three months infants are making their own—it is believed the stimulus for such antibody formation is from contact with ABO-like antigenic substances in nature. erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of the newborn) is a type of anemia in which the red blood cells of the fetus are destroyed by the maternal immune system because of a blood group incompatibility between the fetus and its mother, particularly in matings where the mother is type O and the father type A.

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Universalium. 2010.

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