Stewart, Martha

▪ 1996

      Whether one saw her as a champion of the skills and values of the traditional homemaker or as a driven, obsessive businesswoman, Martha Stewart loomed as large as the Statue of Liberty on the American horizon in 1995. She was everywhere—on a syndicated weekly television show with an audience of five million, in the pages of her magazine, Martha Stewart Living, in 15 books and 6 videos, in self-spoofing television commercials, and in two parodies of her magazine. Smiling, competent, and in control, she was at home wielding a band saw, a hedge trimmer, a rolling pin, or her signature glue gun. Not since the 1950s had domesticity been so celebrated—or so debated.

      Martha Kostyra was born in Jersey City, N.J., on Aug. 3, 1941, and grew up in a Polish-American household where the traditional arts of cooking, sewing, preserving, housekeeping, and gardening were practiced. She started planning birthday parties for neighbour children while she was in grammar school, and she paid her college tuition by modeling. While at Barnard College, New York City, she married law student Andrew Stewart; their daughter, Alexis, was born in 1965. Martha became a successful stockbroker at a Wall Street firm, but she left New York in 1973 for Westport, Conn., where she and Andrew began the transformation of Turkey Hill, a Federal-style farmhouse. With yeoman labour they gardened, restored, and decorated, acquiring the skills and the setting for books and TV shows, but their marriage ended in a bitter divorce in 1990. A house in the Hamptons and a Manhattan apartment later provided further raw material.

      In 1976 she started a catering business with a partner, Norma Collier, and Stewart's talent for innovation and presentation soon brought her a string of prestigious clients. Her first book, Entertaining (1982; with Elizabeth Hawes), set the tone for subsequent publications: superb art direction, gorgeous settings, labour-intensive recipes and decorating projects, and a smiling Martha to show how easy it all was. Other books include Martha Stewart's Hors d'Oeurves (1984), Weddings (1987), and The Martha Stewart Cookbook (1995). In addition, she oversaw the CBS Masterworks Classics, a series of music compilations that could provide the appropriate background for a picnic, a cocktail party, Sunday brunch, or exotic meals. In 1994 she reached a zenith of sorts with a pricey line of interior paints that imitated the colours of the eggs laid by her flock of Araucana chickens.

      Stewart's perfectionism, encyclopaedic knowledge, and bottomless capacity for work were not universally admired. She was censured for setting an impossible model for harried working mothers, and her glorification of a home-centred existence seemed to some a step backward for women. But her fans were legion, and criticism and analysis were both swept away by the rising tide of her commercial success. (ANITA WOLFF)

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▪ American entrepreneur
née  Martha Helen Kostyra 
born August 3, 1941, Jersey City, New Jersey
 
 American entrepreneur and domestic lifestyle innovator who built a catering business into an international media and home furnishing corporation, Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Inc.

      Raised in Nutley, New Jersey, Stewart grew up in a Polish American household where the traditional arts of cooking, sewing, canning and preserving, housekeeping, and gardening were practiced. She started planning birthday parties for neighbour children while she was in grammar school, and she paid her college tuition by taking modeling jobs in New York City. She married law student Andrew Stewart (1961; they divorced in 1990) while studying at Barnard College (B.A., European history and architectural history, 1963); their daughter, Alexis, was born in 1965. Stewart worked as a stockbroker at a small Wall Street firm (1965–72) until she and her family moved to Westport, Connecticut, and turned their ambitions toward restoring Turkey Hill, a Federal-style farmhouse. With yeoman labour they gardened, restored, and decorated, acquiring the skills and the setting for books and TV shows.

      After launching a catering business (1976) with a partner, Norma Collier, Stewart's talent for innovation and presentation attracted a string of prestigious clients. Her first book, Entertaining (1982; with Elizabeth Hawes), set the tone for subsequent publications: superb art direction, gorgeous settings, labour-intensive recipes and decorating projects. In addition, she oversaw the CBS Masterworks Dinner Classics, a series of music compilations that could provide the appropriate background music for a picnic, cocktail party, Sunday brunch, or exotic meal. Following continued success with such books as Martha Stewart's Hors d'Oeuvres (1984) and Weddings (1987), Time Publishing Ventures, Inc., teamed with Stewart (1990) to publish a monthly magazine, Martha Stewart Living, with Stewart not only as editor in chief but as the featured personality within its pages. She began a syndicated television show of the same name (1993) and eventually bought the magazine from Time Warner Inc. (1997), funding the purchase with proceeds from her merchandising arrangement with Kmart, which debuted as the Martha Stewart Everyday line of household furnishings. Each of these business moves took her closer to her ultimate goal of creating a multichannel media and marketing firm. That goal was fully realized when Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia was listed on the New York Stock Exchange (1999), with Stewart as chairman and chief executive officer (CEO). She became a billionaire, however briefly, with the public launch of her company.

      In December 2001 Stewart ordered the sale of 4,000 shares of ImClone Systems, a biomedical firm owned by family friend Samuel Waksal. The sale of her shares, occurring one day before public information about ImClone caused the stock price to drop, sparked accusations of insider trading. Stewart stepped down as CEO of her firm in 2003, assuming the title of chief creative officer and appearing to distance herself from daily operations as she focused on defending herself against charges of lying and obstructing justice. Convicted in 2004 and sentenced to serve five months in prison followed by five months of home detention, Stewart urged her fans to continue supporting her company.

      As she built her business, Stewart's perfectionism, comprehensive knowledge, and bottomless capacity for work were not universally admired. She was censured for setting an impossible model for harried working mothers, and her glorification of a home-centred existence seemed to some a step backward for women. But her fans were legion, and many criticisms were swept away by the personal appeal that made her company a commercial success.

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Universalium. 2010.

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