Salk, Jonas

▪ 1996

      U.S. physician and medical researcher (b. Oct. 28, 1914, New York, N.Y.—d. June 23, 1995, La Jolla, Calif.), was the creator of the first effective vaccine against poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis). Salk first conducted research on viruses in the 1930s when he was a medical student at New York University, and in the 1940s he helped develop flu vaccines at the University of Michigan. He began his studies of polio at the University of Pittsburgh, Pa., where in 1947 he had become head of viral research. Polio epidemics had been intensifying until in 1952, the worst year, about 58,000 cases were reported in the U.S. alone, and more than 3,000 died from the disease. It had been thought that live forms of the poliovirus were necessary for successful immunization, but Salk was convinced that inactivated virus would work. With financial help from the March of Dimes campaign of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, he developed an injectable inactivated-virus vaccine. He conducted the first human trials on former polio patients and on himself and his family, and then in 1954 clinical trials began on some 1.8 million U.S. schoolchildren. On April 12, 1955, the announcement was made that the vaccine was effective and safe. A nationwide inoculation campaign began, and by 1962 the number of new cases of polio had dropped to approximately 1,000. Although in the U.S. the Salk vaccine was superseded about that time by the oral live-virus vaccine developed by Albert B. Sabin, the former remained in use in many countries. By 1995 polio had been eliminated from the entire Western Hemisphere and was targeted for global eradication. In 1963 Salk opened the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla. In later years he began research aimed at developing vaccines for multiple sclerosis and AIDS, and at the time of his death a vaccine to prevent the development of AIDS in HIV-infected persons was being tested in a small clinical trial. Among the many awards Salk received during his career were the French Legion of Honor (chevalier, 1955; officer, 1976), the Albert Lasker Award (1956), and the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1977).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • SALK, JONAS — (1914–1995), U.S. virologist. Salk was born in New York City, graduating in medicine from New York University Medical School (1939). Pursuing his commitment as a student to killed antiviral vaccination, he worked on influenza virus vaccines at… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Salk, Jonas — (1914 95)    American scientist. He was a research professor at the University of Pittsburgh. He developed the anti polio vaccine which is used worldwide. He served as an adviser on virus diseases to the World Health Organization, and founded the …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Salk, Jonas Edward — Médico y microbiólogo estadounidense, nacido en Nueva York en 1914. Consiguió, en 1953, cultivar los tres tipos de virus de la poliomielitis más comunes, inactivarlos con formaldehido y lograr la primera vacuna contra la poliomielitis. Medical… …   Diccionario médico

  • Salk,Jonas Edward — Salk (sôlk), Jonas Edward. 1914 1995. American microbiologist who developed the first effective killed virus vaccine against polio (1954). * * * …   Universalium

  • Salk , Jonas Edward — (1914–1995) American microbiologist Salk was born in New York City, the son of a garment worker. He was educated at the City College of New York and at New York University Medical School, where he obtained his MD in 1939. In 1942 he went to the… …   Scientists

  • Salk, Jonas Edward — ▪ American physician and medical researcher born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, New York, U.S. died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, California   American physician and medical researcher who developed the first safe and effective vaccine for polio.       Salk …   Universalium

  • Salk, Jonas (Edward) — born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, N.Y., U.S. died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, Calif. U.S. physician and researcher. He received his M.D. from New York University. Working with other scientists to classify poliovirus, he confirmed earlier studies that… …   Universalium

  • Salk, Jonas (Edward) — (28 oct. 1914, Nueva York, N.Y., EE.UU.–23 jun. 1995, La Jolla, Cal.). Médico e investigador estadounidense. Se graduó de médico en la Universidad de Nueva York. Trabajando con otros científicos en la clasificación del poliovirus, confirmó los… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Salk, Jonas Edward — (b. 1914)    Discoverer of anti polio vaccine. As a New York research professor at the University of Pittsburgh, Salk evolved the anti polio vaccine which bears his name and which is now in worldwide use. From 1961 to 1963, he was an adviser on… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Jonas Salk — Salk en la Universidad de Pittsburgh en 1955. Nacimiento 28 de octubre de 1914 …   Wikipedia Español

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