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# thermal conduction

Transfer of heat energy resulting from differences in temperature between adjacent bodies or adjacent parts of a body.

In the absence of a heat pump, the energy will flow from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. The transfer of energy occurs as a result of collision among the particles of the matter involved. The rate of transfer of energy is proportional to the cross-sectional area of contact and to the difference in temperature between the two regions. A substance of high thermal conductivity, such as copper, is a good thermal conductor; one with low thermal conductivity, such as wood, is a poor thermal conductor. See also convection, radiation.

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transfer of energy (heat) arising from temperature differences between adjacent parts of a body.

Thermal conductivity is attributed to the exchange of energy between adjacent molecules and electrons in the conducting medium. The rate of heat flow in a rod of material is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the rod and to the temperature difference between the ends and inversely proportional to the length; that is the rate H equals the ratio of the cross section A of the rod to its length l, multiplied by the temperature difference (T2 - T1) and by the thermal conductivity of the material, designated by the constant k. This empirical relation is expressed as: H = - k(A/l)(T2 - T1). The minus sign arises because heat flows always from higher to lower temperature.

A substance of large thermal conductivity k is a good heat conductor, whereas one with small thermal conductivity is a poor heat conductor or good thermal insulator. Typical values are 0.093 kilocalories/second-metre-°C for copper (a good thermal conductor) and 0.00003 kilocalories/second-metre°C for wood (poor thermal conductor).

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Universalium. 2010.

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