sheikh

I

Among Arabic-speaking tribes, especially Bedouin, the male head of the family, as well as of each successively larger social unit making up the tribal structure.

The sheikh is generally assisted by an informal tribal council of male elders. Within the broader Arabic-speaking community, the word may also be used as a title or form of respectful address or to designate a religious authority. Its significance may vary from region to region.
II
(as used in expressions)
Qasimi Sheikh SulTan ibn Muhammad al
Jabal al Shaykh
Junayd Shaykh
Shaykh Ahmad ibn Zayn al Din Ibrahim al Ahsai

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▪ Arabic title
also spelled  Sheik, Shaikh, or Shaykh,  Arabic  Shaykh, 

      Arabic title of respect dating from pre-Islāmic antiquity; it strictly means a venerable man of more than 50 years of age. The title sheikh is especially borne by heads of religious orders, heads of colleges, such as Al-Azhar University in Cairo, chiefs of tribes, and headmen of villages and of separate quarters of towns. It is also applied to learned men, especially members of the class of ulamas (ulama) (theologians), and has been applied to anyone who has memorized the whole Qur'ān, however young he might be.

      Shaykh al-jabal (“the mountain chief”) was a popular term for the head of the Assassins and was mistranslated by the crusaders as “the old man of the mountain.” By far the most important title was shaykh al-islām, which by the 11th century was given to eminent ulamas and mystics and by the 15th century was open to any outstanding mufti (canonical lawyer). In the Ottoman Empire the use of this title was restricted by Süleyman I (1520–66) to the mufti of Istanbul, who, equal in rank to the grand vizier, was head of the religious institutions that controlled law, justice, religion, and education. Because of his right to issue binding fatwās (Islāmic legal opinions), this official came to wield great power. In 1924, under the Turkish Republic, the last vestiges of the institution were abolished.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • sheikh — sheikh; sheikh·dom; sheikh·ly; …   English syllables

  • sheikh — (also shaykh or sheik) ► NOUN 1) an Arab leader, especially the chief or head of a tribe, family, or village. 2) a leader in a Muslim community or organization. DERIVATIVES sheikhdom noun. ORIGIN Arabic, old man, sheikh …   English terms dictionary

  • sheikh — sheik [ʃeık US ʃi:k] n [Date: 1500 1600; : Arabic; Origin: shaykh] 1.) an Arab ruler or prince 2.) a Muslim religious leader or teacher …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • sheikh — pronounced shayk or sheek, is the preferred spelling of the word for an Arab chief or leader …   Modern English usage

  • Sheikh — For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). Part of a series on Islam Usul al fiqh (The Roots of Jurisprudence) Fiqh Quran and Sunnah …   Wikipedia

  • Sheikh —    The Arabic origin of the word sheikh is simply old man. In Kurdistan, however, sheikhs are holy men, recipients of popular devotion that at times borders on worship and leaders of sufi orders. Traditionally, they enjoyed wide respect and thus… …   Historical Dictionary of the Kurds

  • sheikh — Sheik Sheik, n. [Ar. sheikh, shaykh, a venerable old man, a chief, fr. sh[=a]kha to grow or be old.] The head of an Arab family, or of a clan or a tribe; also, the chief magistrate of an Arab village. The name is also applied to Mohammedan… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • sheikh — [[t]ʃe͟ɪk, AM ʃi͟ːk[/t]] sheikhs also sheik, shaikh N TITLE; N COUNT A sheikh is a male Arab chief or ruler. ...Sheikh Khalifa. ...the sheik s role in global oil affairs …   English dictionary

  • Sheikh — Der Scheich (auch Schaich, Sheikh, Shaikh, Shaykh, Schech; arabisch ‏شيخ‎, DMG šaiḫ „Ältester“, „Greis“) ist ursprünglich das Stammesoberhaupt bei den arabischen Beduinen. Der Begriff wird heute häufig als Titel für führende Persönlichkeiten des… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • sheikh — noun Sheikh is used after these nouns: ↑oil …   Collocations dictionary

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