saturniid moth

Any of some 800 moth species of the principally tropical family Saturniidae.

Adults have a stout, hairy body and broad wings, often vividly coloured and patterned. Most species have a central eyespot on each wing. Among the saturniids are the io moth (Automeris io); the giant cecropia moth (Hyalophora cecropia), the largest moth native to North America, with a wingspan of 6 in. (15 cm); several species of Antheraea that are used as a source of commercial silk; the emperor moth (Saturnia pavonia); and the luna moth.

Polyphemus moth (Antheraea polyphemus)

William E. Ferguson

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insect
also called  giant silkworm moth  

      any of about 1,500 species of moths (order Lepidoptera), some of which spin thick, silken cocoons and are sometimes used to produce commercial silk. Adults have stout, hairy bodies and broad wings that are often vividly coloured and patterned. Most species have a central eyespot marking each wing. The wingspan of most North American species does not exceed 15 cm (6 inches), but the hercules moth (Coscinocera hercules) from the tropical forests of Australia has a wing area that reportedly exceeds that of any other insect. This moth, sometimes mistaken for a bird, has broad, dark-brown wings with tails on the hind pair and a wingspan of about 28 cm (11 inches).

 Adults have reduced, or vestigial, mouthparts, and many never feed. The feathery antennae of males are used to detect the scent of distant females. The large, usually green, larvae feed chiefly on tree foliage. Most species have colourful knots or spines and sometimes irritant barbs. Some spin cocoons; others pupate in the ground. Saturniids have been used in genetic studies of hybridization and variation. The giant cecropia moth (Hyalophora cecropia) has been used in studies of hormonal control of transformation and hibernation.

      The larvae of the polyphemus moth (Antheraea polyphemus) are green with white lines and are marked by gold knobs; they feed on oak, maple, and birch leaves and pupate in a cocoon in a leaf on the ground. Antheraea species, including A. polyphemus, are sometimes used as a source of commercial silk; e.g., A. assama for muga silk; the Chinese oak silkworm, A. pernyi, for shantung silk; and the Indian moth, A. paphia, for tussah silk. A Southeast Asian silk-producing species is the large atlas moth (Attacus atlas), whose wingspread often exceeds 25 cm (10 inches). The caterpillar of the cynthia moth (Samia cynthia or walkeri), also known as the ailanthus silk moth, native to Asia and introduced into North America, feeds chiefly on leaves of the ailanthus tree and the castor oil plant. The olive green adult has a distinctive pattern of crescents on its wings. The cocoons, often rolled inside leaves and suspended from a tree, yield a poor-quality silk that is sometimes used commercially.

      The heavily scaled wings of the emperor moth (Saturnia pavonia), which occurs in temperate regions of Europe and Asia, are marked by transparent eyespots, which presumably serve a protective function in frightening predators. Larval forms feed on shrubs. The promethea moth (Callosamia promethea)—also called spicebush moth because the larvae feed on spicebush, sassafras, lilac, and related plants is a common North American saturniid moth. The female moth is maroon in colour, and the male is dark brown. The cocoon, formed inside a leaf, is secured to a tree by silk. The beautiful adult luna moth (Actias luna), which has a wingspread of about 10 cm (4 inches), is light green or yellow with thin brown borders on each wing and has tail-like projections on the hindwings. It usually occurs in the southern parts of North America.

      The cecropia moth is the largest moth native to North America, attaining a wingspread of about 15 cm (6 inches). It is brown with white, red, and gray markings and large, distinctive, crescent-shaped eye spots. The larva grows to 10 cm (4 inches) in length.

      The io moth (Automeris io) is characterized by yellow males and red-brown females, and both sexes have a large, dark eyespot on each hindwing. The bright green caterpillars are 5–8 cm (2–3 inches) in length and have red and white stripes running along the sides of the body. They are covered with barbed, stinging (urticating) hairs that remain in the skin of predators or someone unlucky enough to brush against one. Io caterpillars feed on a wide range of trees, corn, and clover.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • saturniid moth — noun large brightly colored and usually tropical moth; larvae spin silken cocoons • Syn: ↑saturniid • Hypernyms: ↑moth • Hyponyms: ↑emperor, ↑emperor moth, ↑Saturnia pavonia, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • moth — /mawth, moth/, n., pl. moths /mawdhz, modhz, mawths, moths/. 1. any of numerous insects of the order Lepidoptera, generally distinguished from the butterflies by having feathery antennae and by having crepuscular or nocturnal habits. 2. See… …   Universalium

  • saturniid — noun Etymology: New Latin Saturniidae, from Saturnia, genus of moths, from Latin, daughter of the god Saturn Date: circa 1909 any of a family (Saturniidae) of usually large stout strong winged moths (as a luna moth or a cecropia moth) with hairy… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • saturniid — noun /səˈtɚ.ni.ɪd/ Any moth of the family Saturniidae …   Wiktionary

  • saturniid — [sə tə:nɪɪd] noun Entomology a moth of a family (Saturniidae) which includes the emperor moths and the giant Indian silk moths. Origin C19: from mod. L. Saturniidae, from the genus name Saturnia …   English new terms dictionary

  • saturniid — n. any large moth of the family Saturniidae, including emperor moths. Etymology: mod.L …   Useful english dictionary

  • imperial moth — noun large American moth having yellow wings with purplish or brownish markings; larvae feed on e.g. maple and pine trees • Syn: ↑Eacles imperialis • Hypernyms: ↑saturniid, ↑saturniid moth • Member Holonyms: ↑Eacles, ↑genus Eacles …   Useful english dictionary

  • silkworm moth — noun 1. moderate sized Asiatic moth whose larvae feed on mulberry leaves and produce silk • Syn: ↑bombycid, ↑bombycid moth • Hypernyms: ↑moth • Hyponyms: ↑domestic silkworm moth, ↑domesticated silkworm moth, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • cecropia moth — noun North American silkworm moth; larvae feed on the leaves of forest trees • Syn: ↑cecropia, ↑Hyalophora cecropia • Hypernyms: ↑saturniid, ↑saturniid moth * * * “ noun also …   Useful english dictionary

  • giant silkworm moth — noun any silkworm moth of the family Saturniidae • Syn: ↑silkworm moth • Hypernyms: ↑saturniid, ↑saturniid moth • Hyponyms: ↑cynthia moth, ↑Samia cynthia, ↑Samia walkeri …   Useful english dictionary

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