sadhu and swami

In India, a religious ascetic or holy person.

Sadhus are typically wandering ascetics who subsist on alms. They may follow the tenets of a particular belief system, such as Hinduism or Jainism, but are more typically regarded as saintly in their own right. The term swami refers to a sadhu ordained in a specific order and is associated particularly with Vedanta. Sadhus and swamis may live either in communities or in solitude; they typically possess little, eschew conventional and modern dress, and have shaven heads or matted, unkempt hair.

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▪ Hindu ascetic
sadhu also spelled  saddhu 
 in India, a religious ascetic or holy person. The class of sadhus includes renunciants of many types and faiths. They are sometimes designated by the term swami (Sanskrit svami, “master”), which refers especially to an ascetic who has been initiated into a specific religious order, such as the Ramakrishna Mission. In Shaivism the preferred term is sannyasi, and in Vaishnavism it is vairagi (vairāgin).

      Sadhus may live together in monasteries (mathas) that usually belong to a particular order. They may also wander throughout the country alone or in small groups or isolate themselves in small huts or caves. They generally take vows of poverty and celibacy and depend on the charity of householders for their food. Their dress and ornaments differ according to sectarian allegiances and personal tastes; they usually wear ochre-coloured (more rarely, white) robes, and some are naked. They shave their heads, or they allow their hair to lie matted on their shoulders or twist it into a knot on top of their heads. They usually retain only the few possessions they carry with them: a staff (danda), a water pot (kamandalu), an alms bowl, prayer beads, and perhaps an extra cloth or a fire tong.

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Universalium. 2010.

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