inertial guidance system
- An electronic system that continuously monitors the position, velocity, and acceleration of a vehicle, usually a submarine, missile, or airplane, and thus provides navigational data or control.The basic components of an inertial guidance system are gyroscopes, accelerometers, and a computer.
* * *electronic system that continuously monitors the position, velocity, and acceleration of a vehicle, usually a submarine, missile, or airplane, and thus provides navigational data or control without need for communicating with a base station.The basic components of an inertial guidance system are gyroscopes (gyroscope), accelerometers (accelerometer), and a computer. The gyroscopes provide fixed reference directions or turning rate measurements, and accelerometers measure changes in the velocity of the system. The computer processes information on changes in direction and acceleration and feeds its results to the vehicle's navigation system.There are two fundamentally different types of inertial navigation systems: gimbaling systems and strapdown systems. A typical gimbaling inertial navigation system, such as might be used on board a missile, uses three gyroscopes and three accelerometers. The three gimbal-mounted gyroscopes establish a frame of reference for the vehicle's roll (rotation about the axis running from the front to the rear of the vehicle), pitch (rotation about the axis running left to right), and yaw (rotation about the axis running top to bottom). The accelerometers measure velocity changes in each of these three directions. The computer performs two separate numerical integrations (integration) on the data it receives from the inertial guidance system. First it integrates the acceleration data to get the current velocity of the vehicle, then it integrates the computed velocity to determine the current position. This information is compared continuously to the desired (predetermined and programmed) course.In a strapdown inertial navigation system the accelerometers are rigidly mounted parallel to the body axes of the vehicle. In this application the gyroscopes do not provide a stable platform; they are instead used to sense the turning rates of the craft. Double numerical integration, combining the measured accelerations and the instantaneous turning rates, allows the computer to determine the craft's current velocity and position and to guide it along the desired trajectory.In many modern inertial navigation systems, such as those used on commercial jetliners, booster rockets, and orbiting satellites, the turning rates are measured by ring laser gyroscopes (gyroscope) or by fibre-optic gyroscopes. Minute errors in the measuring capabilities of the accelerometers or in the balance of the gyroscopes can introduce large errors into the information that the inertial guidance system provides. These instruments must, therefore, be constructed and maintained to strict tolerances, carefully aligned, and reinitialized at frequent intervals using an independent navigation system such as the global positioning system (GPS) (GPS).
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inertial guidance system — noun a system to control a plane or spacecraft; uses inertial forces • Syn: ↑inertial navigation system • Hypernyms: ↑system • Part Holonyms: ↑spacecraft, ↑ballistic capsule, ↑space vehicle, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Inertial navigation system — An Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer and motion sensors to continuously track the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a vehicle without the need for external references … Wikipedia
inertial navigation system — noun a system to control a plane or spacecraft; uses inertial forces • Syn: ↑inertial guidance system • Hypernyms: ↑system • Part Holonyms: ↑spacecraft, ↑ballistic capsule, ↑space vehicle, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Inertial Reference System — Ein Inertiales Navigationssystem (INS) bestimmt die eigene Position und Geschwindigkeit, ohne dass ein Bezug zur äußeren Umgebung erforderlich ist. Der Begriff Trägheitsnavigation ist synonym, da Bewegungen über die Massenträgheit bei… … Deutsch Wikipedia
inertial guidance — (or navigation) n. a self contained, automatic guidance system composed of gyroscopes, accelerometers, and computers and used to control rockets, airplanes, submarines, etc.: it continuously measures acceleration, calculates the present speed and … English World dictionary
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inertial guidance — noun a method of controlling the flight of a missile by devices that respond to inertial forces • Syn: ↑inertial navigation • Hypernyms: ↑steering, ↑guidance, ↑direction * * * noun or … Useful english dictionary
inertial guidance — Navig. a guidance system for an aerospace vehicle, in which self contained devices determine the vehicle s course on the basis of the directions and magnitudes of the accelerations it undergoes in flight. Also called inertial navigation. Cf.… … Universalium
inertial guidance — A guidance system designed to project a missile over a predetermined path, wherein the path of the missile is adjusted after launching by devices wholly within the missile and independent of outside information. The system measures and converts… … Military dictionary
inertial guidance — noun An automated system which directs a craft or missile, continually calculating its position from its measured acceleration. Syn: inertial navigation, INS … Wiktionary