Carved wooden pole used in the religious rites of the South Pacific islands.The poles, 12–26 ft (4–8 m) tall, resemble an upended canoe with an exaggerated prow; they consist of carved figures placed one atop the other (thought to represent deceased ancestors) and terminate in a flat projection of ornate, openwork ornament. They are intended to harbour the souls of the dead, keeping them away from the village, and are also used to transmit magical powers. See also totem pole.
* * *▪ religious carvingalso spelled Bis Pole,carved wooden pole used in religious rites of the South Pacific Islands. Bisj poles are occasionally found in North America, but they are more common in New Zealand, Vanuatu (formerly the New Hebrides), and especially the Asmat area in southwestern (Indonesian) New Guinea and along the Casuarinan coast. The design of the poles—which range from 12 to 26 feet (3.7 to 7.9 m) in height and consist of carved figures, thought to represent clan ancestors who were killed by enemies, placed one on top of the other—derives from the squatting figure motif, one of the germinal-figural forms in Oceanic art. The complex series of figures terminates in an ornate, openwork ornament fashioned from a flat root projection left on the trunk when the tree is felled. The complex religious significance and symbolism associated with bisj poles is reflected in the ceremony surrounding their creation. In the Asmat area, for example, the mangrove tree, representing the enemy, is ceremonially stalked and cut down. As the bark is stripped from the trunk and red sap seeps from the white wood, the Asmat is reminded of the conquered warrior's blood.The bisj pole has been interpreted as another form of the “soul ship,” a large ceremonial dugout canoe filled with carved figures said to possess special powers. The ships are intended to carry the souls of the recently dead away from the villages and to impart magical powers to novices during initiation rites. The rituals surrounding bisj poles show that they, too, are intended to harbour souls of the dead, keeping them away from the village; and in appearance they resemble an upended canoe with an exaggerated prow and a dwarfed shell. Like the soul ships, bisj poles are also used to transmit magical powers—in this case to the palms in the sago swamps, where they are disposed of after ceremonies associated with the ancestor cult.
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