or pao-chia

Chinese village militia system created by Wang Anshi as part of his reforms of 1069–76.

Units of 10 families were regularly trained and supplied with arms, thereby reducing the government's dependence on mercenaries. Members were mutually responsible for each other. The system was resurrected in the 19th century to help put down the Taiping Rebellion and was imitated by both the Nationalist Party and the Chinese Communist Party in the 20th century.

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▪ Chinese social system

      traditional Chinese system of collective neighbourhood organization, by means of which the government was able to maintain order and control through all levels of society, while employing relatively few officials.

      A collective neighbourhood guarantee system was first instituted during the Warring States Period, when groups of 5 households formed a wu. This method of organization was revived in a different form during the Northern Wei dynasty (AD 386–534/535) but did not take on the name by which it is now known until the Song dynasty (960–1279), when a baojia system was instituted by the great reformer Wang Anshi as a military measure. Under Wang's scheme, 10 households formed a bao, and 5 bao a dabao. Each baojia was made responsible for supplying the government with a certain number of trained and armed militiamen.

      During the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), the baojia system often coincided with the lijia system, which had been established for the collection of land and labour taxes. But it also began to assume the separate function of overseeing the moral conduct of members of the community. The Qing dynasty (1644–1911) perfected the system. Under the Qing, a baojia unit ideally consisted of 10 families formed into a jia and 10 jias formed into a bao, all under the supervision of an elected chief. The chief of each unit was responsible for preserving the public order; he also maintained the local census records and acted as an intelligence agent for the central government. Baojia organization began to deteriorate about the middle of the 19th century, when central control over local government began to erode.

      From November 1934 until 1949, the baojia system was practiced throughout China; it was abolished after the communist government took control in 1949.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Baojia — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El baojia o pao chia fue un sistema militar chino creado por Wang Anshi como parte integral de sus reformas de entre 1069 y 1076. Era de carácter meramente rural y constaba de grupos de diez familias que eran… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Baojia — 1 Original name in latin Baojia Name in other language Baojia, Baojia Zhen, Pao chia lou, Paochialo, bao jia, bao jia zhen State code CN Continent/City Asia/Chongqing longitude 29.43869 latitude 108.31324 altitude 311 Population 0 Date 2012 10 06 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • baojia — o pao chia Sistema chino de aldeas militarizadas creado por Wang Anshi como parte de sus reformas de 1069–76. Eran unidades de 10 familias regularmente adiestradas y abastecidas con armas, reduciendo de ese modo la dependencia que el gobierno… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • bǎojiǎ — [ref dict= Universal (Ch Ru) ]保甲[/ref] …   Chinese phonetic list

  • bàojià — [ref dict= Universal (Ch Ru) ]报价[/ref] …   Chinese phonetic list

  • Baojia system — The baojia system (zh cp|c=保甲|p=bǎojiǎ) was an invention of Wang Anshi of the Song Dynasty, who created this community based system of law enforcement and civil control that was included in his large reform of Chinese government (“the New… …   Wikipedia

  • bǎojiā wèiguó — [ref dict= Universal (Ch Ru) ]保家卫国[/ref] …   Chinese phonetic list

  • Système Baojia — Le système Baojia (chinois : 保甲 ;  pinyin : bǎojiǎ) est une invention de Wang Anshi de la dynastie Song, qui crée un système communautaire d application des lois et un contrôle civil. ce système fait partie des nombreuses… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • 保甲 — bǎojiǎ [neighbourhood administrative system] 古代(宋王安石始创)的一种户籍编制制度。 若干家编作一甲, 设甲长; 若干甲编作一保, 设保长(沿用至解放前) …   Advanced Chinese dictionary

  • 报价 — bàojià [quotation; quoted price] 提出商品、 股票或债券的当前价格的行为, 为商品、 股票或债券给出当前的出价和要价的行为; 尤指证券和商品的当前出价和要价或时价的提出或公布; 亦指这样提出或公布的出价、 要价或价格 …   Advanced Chinese dictionary

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